Diurnal variation in swim performance remains, irrespective of training once or twice daily

Louise Martin, Alan M Nevill, Kevin G Thompson

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    12 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    PURPOSE: Fast swim times in morning rounds are essential to ensure qualification in evening finals. A significant time-of-day effect in swimming performance has consistently been observed, although physical activity early in the day has been postulated to reduce this effect. The aim of this study was to compare intradaily variation in race-pace performance of swimmers routinely undertaking morning and evening training (MEG) with those routinely undertaking evening training only (EOG).

    METHODS: Each group consisted of 8 swimmers (mean +/- SD: age = 15.2 +/- 1.0 and 15.4 +/- 1.4 y, 200-m freestyle time 132.8 +/- 8.4 and 136.3 +/- 9.1 s) who completed morning and evening trials in a randomized order with 48 h in between on 2 separate occasions. Oral temperature, heart rate, and blood lactate were assessed at rest, after a warm-up, after a 150-m race-pace swim, and after a 100-m time trial. Stroke rate, stroke count, and time were recorded for each length of the 150-m and 100-m swims.

    RESULTS: Both training groups recorded significantly slower morning 100-m performances (MEG = +1.7 s, EOG = +1.4 s; P < .05) along with persistently lower morning temperatures that on average were -0.47 degrees C and -0.60 degrees C, respectively (P < .05). No differences were found in blood-lactate, heart-rate, and stroke-count responses (P > .05). All results were found to be reproducible (P > .05).

    CONCLUSIONS: The long-term use of morning training does not appear to significantly reduce intradaily variation in race-pace swimming or body temperature.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)192-200
    Number of pages9
    JournalInternational Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
    Volume2
    Issue number2
    Publication statusPublished - Jun 2007

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    Electrooculography
    Stroke
    Teaching Rounds
    Body Temperature
    Lactic Acid
    Heart Rate
    Exercise
    Temperature

    Cite this

    @article{95d232aae60342af98c839139879dfda,
    title = "Diurnal variation in swim performance remains, irrespective of training once or twice daily",
    abstract = "PURPOSE: Fast swim times in morning rounds are essential to ensure qualification in evening finals. A significant time-of-day effect in swimming performance has consistently been observed, although physical activity early in the day has been postulated to reduce this effect. The aim of this study was to compare intradaily variation in race-pace performance of swimmers routinely undertaking morning and evening training (MEG) with those routinely undertaking evening training only (EOG).METHODS: Each group consisted of 8 swimmers (mean +/- SD: age = 15.2 +/- 1.0 and 15.4 +/- 1.4 y, 200-m freestyle time 132.8 +/- 8.4 and 136.3 +/- 9.1 s) who completed morning and evening trials in a randomized order with 48 h in between on 2 separate occasions. Oral temperature, heart rate, and blood lactate were assessed at rest, after a warm-up, after a 150-m race-pace swim, and after a 100-m time trial. Stroke rate, stroke count, and time were recorded for each length of the 150-m and 100-m swims.RESULTS: Both training groups recorded significantly slower morning 100-m performances (MEG = +1.7 s, EOG = +1.4 s; P < .05) along with persistently lower morning temperatures that on average were -0.47 degrees C and -0.60 degrees C, respectively (P < .05). No differences were found in blood-lactate, heart-rate, and stroke-count responses (P > .05). All results were found to be reproducible (P > .05).CONCLUSIONS: The long-term use of morning training does not appear to significantly reduce intradaily variation in race-pace swimming or body temperature.",
    keywords = "Activity Cycles, Adaptation, Physiological, Adolescent, Analysis of Variance, Body Temperature, Heart Rate, Humans, Lactic Acid, Male, Motor Activity, Swimming, Task Performance and Analysis, Time Factors, Clinical Trial, Comparative Study, Journal Article, Randomized Controlled Trial",
    author = "Louise Martin and Nevill, {Alan M} and Thompson, {Kevin G}",
    year = "2007",
    month = "6",
    language = "English",
    volume = "2",
    pages = "192--200",
    journal = "International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance",
    issn = "1555-0265",
    publisher = "Human Kinetics Publishers Inc.",
    number = "2",

    }

    Diurnal variation in swim performance remains, irrespective of training once or twice daily. / Martin, Louise; Nevill, Alan M; Thompson, Kevin G.

    In: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, Vol. 2, No. 2, 06.2007, p. 192-200.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Diurnal variation in swim performance remains, irrespective of training once or twice daily

    AU - Martin, Louise

    AU - Nevill, Alan M

    AU - Thompson, Kevin G

    PY - 2007/6

    Y1 - 2007/6

    N2 - PURPOSE: Fast swim times in morning rounds are essential to ensure qualification in evening finals. A significant time-of-day effect in swimming performance has consistently been observed, although physical activity early in the day has been postulated to reduce this effect. The aim of this study was to compare intradaily variation in race-pace performance of swimmers routinely undertaking morning and evening training (MEG) with those routinely undertaking evening training only (EOG).METHODS: Each group consisted of 8 swimmers (mean +/- SD: age = 15.2 +/- 1.0 and 15.4 +/- 1.4 y, 200-m freestyle time 132.8 +/- 8.4 and 136.3 +/- 9.1 s) who completed morning and evening trials in a randomized order with 48 h in between on 2 separate occasions. Oral temperature, heart rate, and blood lactate were assessed at rest, after a warm-up, after a 150-m race-pace swim, and after a 100-m time trial. Stroke rate, stroke count, and time were recorded for each length of the 150-m and 100-m swims.RESULTS: Both training groups recorded significantly slower morning 100-m performances (MEG = +1.7 s, EOG = +1.4 s; P < .05) along with persistently lower morning temperatures that on average were -0.47 degrees C and -0.60 degrees C, respectively (P < .05). No differences were found in blood-lactate, heart-rate, and stroke-count responses (P > .05). All results were found to be reproducible (P > .05).CONCLUSIONS: The long-term use of morning training does not appear to significantly reduce intradaily variation in race-pace swimming or body temperature.

    AB - PURPOSE: Fast swim times in morning rounds are essential to ensure qualification in evening finals. A significant time-of-day effect in swimming performance has consistently been observed, although physical activity early in the day has been postulated to reduce this effect. The aim of this study was to compare intradaily variation in race-pace performance of swimmers routinely undertaking morning and evening training (MEG) with those routinely undertaking evening training only (EOG).METHODS: Each group consisted of 8 swimmers (mean +/- SD: age = 15.2 +/- 1.0 and 15.4 +/- 1.4 y, 200-m freestyle time 132.8 +/- 8.4 and 136.3 +/- 9.1 s) who completed morning and evening trials in a randomized order with 48 h in between on 2 separate occasions. Oral temperature, heart rate, and blood lactate were assessed at rest, after a warm-up, after a 150-m race-pace swim, and after a 100-m time trial. Stroke rate, stroke count, and time were recorded for each length of the 150-m and 100-m swims.RESULTS: Both training groups recorded significantly slower morning 100-m performances (MEG = +1.7 s, EOG = +1.4 s; P < .05) along with persistently lower morning temperatures that on average were -0.47 degrees C and -0.60 degrees C, respectively (P < .05). No differences were found in blood-lactate, heart-rate, and stroke-count responses (P > .05). All results were found to be reproducible (P > .05).CONCLUSIONS: The long-term use of morning training does not appear to significantly reduce intradaily variation in race-pace swimming or body temperature.

    KW - Activity Cycles

    KW - Adaptation, Physiological

    KW - Adolescent

    KW - Analysis of Variance

    KW - Body Temperature

    KW - Heart Rate

    KW - Humans

    KW - Lactic Acid

    KW - Male

    KW - Motor Activity

    KW - Swimming

    KW - Task Performance and Analysis

    KW - Time Factors

    KW - Clinical Trial

    KW - Comparative Study

    KW - Journal Article

    KW - Randomized Controlled Trial

    M3 - Article

    VL - 2

    SP - 192

    EP - 200

    JO - International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance

    JF - International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance

    SN - 1555-0265

    IS - 2

    ER -