Does isometric exercise result in exercise induced hypoalgesia in people with local musculoskeletal pain? A systematic review

Christian Bonello, Michael Girdwood, Keith De Souza, Nicola K. Trinder, Jeremy Lewis, Stephanie L. Lazarczuk, Jamie E. Gaida, Sean I. Docking, Ebonie K. Rio

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    9 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Objective
    The aim of this review was to investigate if exercise induced hypoalgesia (EIH) occurs following isometric muscle contraction in people with local musculoskeletal symptoms.

    Design
    Systematic review.

    Data sources
    MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL & SportDiscus electronic databases were searched (inception to April 2020).

    Eligibility criteria
    Two authors independently evaluated eligibility. Randomised controlled and crossover (repeated measures) trials that measured the effects of isometric exercise in participants with localised musculoskeletal pain during, and up to 2 hours after isometric exercise were included. Other inclusion criteria included comparison to another intervention, or comparison to healthy controls. Primary outcomes were experimentally induced pain thresholds and secondary outcomes included measures of pain sensitivity from clinical testing.

    Results
    13 studies with data from 346 participants were included for narrative synthesis. EIH was reported in some upper and lower limb studies but there were no consistent data to show isometric exercises were superior to comparison interventions.

    Conclusion
    There was no consistent evidence for EIH following isometric exercise in people with musculoskeletal pain. These findings are different to those reported in asymptomatic populations (where EIH is consistently demonstrated) as well as conditions associated with widespread symptoms such as fibromyalgia (where isometric exercise may induce hyperalgesia). Although well tolerated when prescribed, isometric exercise did not induce EIH consistently for people seeking care for local musculoskeletal symptoms. The variance in the dose, location of contraction and intensity of protocols included in this review may explain the inconsistent findings. Further work is required to better understand endogenous analgesia in musculoskeletal pain conditions.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)51-61
    Number of pages11
    JournalPhysical Therapy in Sport
    Volume49
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - May 2021

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