Dynamics of the Metabolic Response During a Competitive 100-M Freestyle in Elite Male Swimmers

Philippe Hellard, Robin Pla, Ferran A Rodríguez, David Simbana, David B Pyne

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Purpose: To compare the dynamics of maximal oxygen uptake (V O 2), blood lactate ([La] b), total energy expenditure (E tot), and contributions of the aerobic (E aer), alactic anaerobic (E an,al), and lactic anaerobic (Ean,lac) metabolic energy pathways over 4 consecutive 25-m laps (L 0-25, L 25-50, etc) of a 100-m maximal freestyle swim. Methods: Elite swimmers comprising 26 juniors (age = 16 [1] y) and 23 seniors (age = 24 [5] y) performed 100 m at maximal speed and then 3 trials (25, 50, and 75 m) at the same pace as that of the 100 m. [La] b was collected, and V O 2 was measured 20 s postexercise. Results: The estimated energetic contributions for the 100-m trial are presented as mean (SD): E aer, 51% (8%); E an,al, 18% (2%); E an,lac, 31% (9%). V O 2 increased fromL 0-25 to L 25-50 (mean = 3.5 L·min -1; 90% confidence interval [CI], 3.4-3.7 L·min -1 to mean = 4.2 L·min -1; 90%CI, 4.0-4.3 L·min -1) and then stabilized in the 2nd 50 m (mean = 4.1 L·min -1; 90% CI, 3.9-4.3 L·min -1 to mean = 4.2 L·min -1; 90% CI, 4.0-4.4 L·min -1). E tot (juniors, 138 [18] kJ; seniors, 168 [26] kJ), E an,al (juniors, 27 [3] kJ; seniors, 30 [3] kJ), and E an,lac (juniors, 38 [12] kJ; seniors, 62 [24] kJ) were 11-58% higher in seniors. Faster swimmers (n = 26) had higher V O 2 (4.6 L · min -1, 90% CI 4.4-4.8 L·min -1 vs 3.9 L·min -1, 90% CI 3.6-4.2 L·min -1), and E aer power was associated with fast performances (P < .001). Conclusion: Faster swimmers were characterized by higher V O 2 and less time to reach the highest V O 2 at ~50 m of the 100-m swim. Anaerobic qualities become more important with age.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1011-1020
Number of pages10
JournalInternational Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Volume13
Issue number8
Early online date21 Feb 2018
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sep 2018

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Confidence Intervals
Lactic Acid
Metabolic Networks and Pathways
Energy Metabolism
Milk
Oxygen

Cite this

Hellard, Philippe ; Pla, Robin ; Rodríguez, Ferran A ; Simbana, David ; Pyne, David B. / Dynamics of the Metabolic Response During a Competitive 100-M Freestyle in Elite Male Swimmers. In: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 2018 ; Vol. 13, No. 8. pp. 1011-1020.
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title = "Dynamics of the Metabolic Response During a Competitive 100-M Freestyle in Elite Male Swimmers",
abstract = "Purpose: To compare the dynamics of maximal oxygen uptake (V O 2), blood lactate ([La] b), total energy expenditure (E tot), and contributions of the aerobic (E aer), alactic anaerobic (E an,al), and lactic anaerobic (Ean,lac) metabolic energy pathways over 4 consecutive 25-m laps (L 0-25, L 25-50, etc) of a 100-m maximal freestyle swim. Methods: Elite swimmers comprising 26 juniors (age = 16 [1] y) and 23 seniors (age = 24 [5] y) performed 100 m at maximal speed and then 3 trials (25, 50, and 75 m) at the same pace as that of the 100 m. [La] b was collected, and V O 2 was measured 20 s postexercise. Results: The estimated energetic contributions for the 100-m trial are presented as mean (SD): E aer, 51{\%} (8{\%}); E an,al, 18{\%} (2{\%}); E an,lac, 31{\%} (9{\%}). V O 2 increased fromL 0-25 to L 25-50 (mean = 3.5 L·min -1; 90{\%} confidence interval [CI], 3.4-3.7 L·min -1 to mean = 4.2 L·min -1; 90{\%}CI, 4.0-4.3 L·min -1) and then stabilized in the 2nd 50 m (mean = 4.1 L·min -1; 90{\%} CI, 3.9-4.3 L·min -1 to mean = 4.2 L·min -1; 90{\%} CI, 4.0-4.4 L·min -1). E tot (juniors, 138 [18] kJ; seniors, 168 [26] kJ), E an,al (juniors, 27 [3] kJ; seniors, 30 [3] kJ), and E an,lac (juniors, 38 [12] kJ; seniors, 62 [24] kJ) were 11-58{\%} higher in seniors. Faster swimmers (n = 26) had higher V O 2 (4.6 L · min -1, 90{\%} CI 4.4-4.8 L·min -1 vs 3.9 L·min -1, 90{\%} CI 3.6-4.2 L·min -1), and E aer power was associated with fast performances (P < .001). Conclusion: Faster swimmers were characterized by higher V O 2 and less time to reach the highest V O 2 at ~50 m of the 100-m swim. Anaerobic qualities become more important with age.",
keywords = "Energy contribution, Growth, Sprint, Swimming",
author = "Philippe Hellard and Robin Pla and Rodr{\'i}guez, {Ferran A} and David Simbana and Pyne, {David B}",
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Dynamics of the Metabolic Response During a Competitive 100-M Freestyle in Elite Male Swimmers. / Hellard, Philippe; Pla, Robin; Rodríguez, Ferran A; Simbana, David; Pyne, David B.

In: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, Vol. 13, No. 8, 01.09.2018, p. 1011-1020.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Dynamics of the Metabolic Response During a Competitive 100-M Freestyle in Elite Male Swimmers

AU - Hellard, Philippe

AU - Pla, Robin

AU - Rodríguez, Ferran A

AU - Simbana, David

AU - Pyne, David B

PY - 2018/9/1

Y1 - 2018/9/1

N2 - Purpose: To compare the dynamics of maximal oxygen uptake (V O 2), blood lactate ([La] b), total energy expenditure (E tot), and contributions of the aerobic (E aer), alactic anaerobic (E an,al), and lactic anaerobic (Ean,lac) metabolic energy pathways over 4 consecutive 25-m laps (L 0-25, L 25-50, etc) of a 100-m maximal freestyle swim. Methods: Elite swimmers comprising 26 juniors (age = 16 [1] y) and 23 seniors (age = 24 [5] y) performed 100 m at maximal speed and then 3 trials (25, 50, and 75 m) at the same pace as that of the 100 m. [La] b was collected, and V O 2 was measured 20 s postexercise. Results: The estimated energetic contributions for the 100-m trial are presented as mean (SD): E aer, 51% (8%); E an,al, 18% (2%); E an,lac, 31% (9%). V O 2 increased fromL 0-25 to L 25-50 (mean = 3.5 L·min -1; 90% confidence interval [CI], 3.4-3.7 L·min -1 to mean = 4.2 L·min -1; 90%CI, 4.0-4.3 L·min -1) and then stabilized in the 2nd 50 m (mean = 4.1 L·min -1; 90% CI, 3.9-4.3 L·min -1 to mean = 4.2 L·min -1; 90% CI, 4.0-4.4 L·min -1). E tot (juniors, 138 [18] kJ; seniors, 168 [26] kJ), E an,al (juniors, 27 [3] kJ; seniors, 30 [3] kJ), and E an,lac (juniors, 38 [12] kJ; seniors, 62 [24] kJ) were 11-58% higher in seniors. Faster swimmers (n = 26) had higher V O 2 (4.6 L · min -1, 90% CI 4.4-4.8 L·min -1 vs 3.9 L·min -1, 90% CI 3.6-4.2 L·min -1), and E aer power was associated with fast performances (P < .001). Conclusion: Faster swimmers were characterized by higher V O 2 and less time to reach the highest V O 2 at ~50 m of the 100-m swim. Anaerobic qualities become more important with age.

AB - Purpose: To compare the dynamics of maximal oxygen uptake (V O 2), blood lactate ([La] b), total energy expenditure (E tot), and contributions of the aerobic (E aer), alactic anaerobic (E an,al), and lactic anaerobic (Ean,lac) metabolic energy pathways over 4 consecutive 25-m laps (L 0-25, L 25-50, etc) of a 100-m maximal freestyle swim. Methods: Elite swimmers comprising 26 juniors (age = 16 [1] y) and 23 seniors (age = 24 [5] y) performed 100 m at maximal speed and then 3 trials (25, 50, and 75 m) at the same pace as that of the 100 m. [La] b was collected, and V O 2 was measured 20 s postexercise. Results: The estimated energetic contributions for the 100-m trial are presented as mean (SD): E aer, 51% (8%); E an,al, 18% (2%); E an,lac, 31% (9%). V O 2 increased fromL 0-25 to L 25-50 (mean = 3.5 L·min -1; 90% confidence interval [CI], 3.4-3.7 L·min -1 to mean = 4.2 L·min -1; 90%CI, 4.0-4.3 L·min -1) and then stabilized in the 2nd 50 m (mean = 4.1 L·min -1; 90% CI, 3.9-4.3 L·min -1 to mean = 4.2 L·min -1; 90% CI, 4.0-4.4 L·min -1). E tot (juniors, 138 [18] kJ; seniors, 168 [26] kJ), E an,al (juniors, 27 [3] kJ; seniors, 30 [3] kJ), and E an,lac (juniors, 38 [12] kJ; seniors, 62 [24] kJ) were 11-58% higher in seniors. Faster swimmers (n = 26) had higher V O 2 (4.6 L · min -1, 90% CI 4.4-4.8 L·min -1 vs 3.9 L·min -1, 90% CI 3.6-4.2 L·min -1), and E aer power was associated with fast performances (P < .001). Conclusion: Faster swimmers were characterized by higher V O 2 and less time to reach the highest V O 2 at ~50 m of the 100-m swim. Anaerobic qualities become more important with age.

KW - Energy contribution

KW - Growth

KW - Sprint

KW - Swimming

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U2 - 10.1123/ijspp.2017-0597

DO - 10.1123/ijspp.2017-0597

M3 - Article

VL - 13

SP - 1011

EP - 1020

JO - International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance

JF - International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance

SN - 1555-0265

IS - 8

ER -