Ecological dynamics of emerging bat virus spillover

Raina K. Plowright, Peggy Eby, Peter J. Hudson, Ina L. Smith, David Westcott, Wayne L. Bryden, Deborah Middleton, Peter A. Reid, Rosemary A. McFarlane, Gerardo Martin, Gary M. Tabor, Lee F. Skerratt, Dale L. Anderson, Gary Crameri, David Quammen, David Jordan, Paul Freeman, Lin Fa Wang, Jonathan H. Epstein, Glenn A. Marsh & 2 others Nina Y. Kung, Hamish McCallum

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

163 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Viruses that originate in bats may be the most notorious emerging zoonoses that spill over from wildlife into domestic animals and humans. Understanding how these infections filter through ecological systems to cause disease in humans is of profound importance to public health. Transmission of viruses from bats to humans requires a hierarchy of enabling conditions that connect the distribution of reservoir hosts, viral infection within these hosts, and exposure and susceptibility of recipient hosts. For many emerging bat viruses, spillover also requires viral shedding from bats, and survival of the virus in the environment. Focusing on Hendra virus, but also addressing Nipah virus, Ebola virus, Marburg virus and coronaviruses, we delineate this cross-species spillover dynamic from the within-host processes that drive virus excretion to land-use changes that increase interaction among species. We describe how land-use changes may affect co-occurrence and contact between bats and recipient hosts. Two hypotheses may explain temporal and spatial pulses of virus shedding in bat populations: episodic shedding from persistently infected bats or transient epidemics that occur as virus is transmitted among bat populations. Management of livestock also may affect the probability of exposure and disease. Interventions to decrease the probability of virus spillover can be implemented at multiple levels from targeting the reservoir host to managing recipient host exposure and susceptibility.

Original languageEnglish
Article number20142124
Pages (from-to)1-9
Number of pages9
JournalProceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
Volume282
Issue number1798
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2015
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

bat
Viruses
Chiroptera
virus
viruses
Virus Shedding
disease reservoirs
viral shedding
land use change
Marburg virus
Hendra Virus
Marburgvirus
Nipah Virus
Nipah virus
Hendra virus
Ebolavirus
Land use
Coronavirus
Coronavirinae
Domestic Animals

Cite this

Plowright, R. K., Eby, P., Hudson, P. J., Smith, I. L., Westcott, D., Bryden, W. L., ... McCallum, H. (2015). Ecological dynamics of emerging bat virus spillover. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 282(1798), 1-9. [20142124]. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2014.2124
Plowright, Raina K. ; Eby, Peggy ; Hudson, Peter J. ; Smith, Ina L. ; Westcott, David ; Bryden, Wayne L. ; Middleton, Deborah ; Reid, Peter A. ; McFarlane, Rosemary A. ; Martin, Gerardo ; Tabor, Gary M. ; Skerratt, Lee F. ; Anderson, Dale L. ; Crameri, Gary ; Quammen, David ; Jordan, David ; Freeman, Paul ; Wang, Lin Fa ; Epstein, Jonathan H. ; Marsh, Glenn A. ; Kung, Nina Y. ; McCallum, Hamish. / Ecological dynamics of emerging bat virus spillover. In: Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 2015 ; Vol. 282, No. 1798. pp. 1-9.
@article{58ba7f662f4345f199ef1e5a2de77ef3,
title = "Ecological dynamics of emerging bat virus spillover",
abstract = "Viruses that originate in bats may be the most notorious emerging zoonoses that spill over from wildlife into domestic animals and humans. Understanding how these infections filter through ecological systems to cause disease in humans is of profound importance to public health. Transmission of viruses from bats to humans requires a hierarchy of enabling conditions that connect the distribution of reservoir hosts, viral infection within these hosts, and exposure and susceptibility of recipient hosts. For many emerging bat viruses, spillover also requires viral shedding from bats, and survival of the virus in the environment. Focusing on Hendra virus, but also addressing Nipah virus, Ebola virus, Marburg virus and coronaviruses, we delineate this cross-species spillover dynamic from the within-host processes that drive virus excretion to land-use changes that increase interaction among species. We describe how land-use changes may affect co-occurrence and contact between bats and recipient hosts. Two hypotheses may explain temporal and spatial pulses of virus shedding in bat populations: episodic shedding from persistently infected bats or transient epidemics that occur as virus is transmitted among bat populations. Management of livestock also may affect the probability of exposure and disease. Interventions to decrease the probability of virus spillover can be implemented at multiple levels from targeting the reservoir host to managing recipient host exposure and susceptibility.",
keywords = "Ebola virus, Emerging infectious diseases of bat origin, Hendra virus in flying-foxes, Marburg virus, Nipah virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus",
author = "Plowright, {Raina K.} and Peggy Eby and Hudson, {Peter J.} and Smith, {Ina L.} and David Westcott and Bryden, {Wayne L.} and Deborah Middleton and Reid, {Peter A.} and McFarlane, {Rosemary A.} and Gerardo Martin and Tabor, {Gary M.} and Skerratt, {Lee F.} and Anderson, {Dale L.} and Gary Crameri and David Quammen and David Jordan and Paul Freeman and Wang, {Lin Fa} and Epstein, {Jonathan H.} and Marsh, {Glenn A.} and Kung, {Nina Y.} and Hamish McCallum",
year = "2015",
doi = "10.1098/rspb.2014.2124",
language = "English",
volume = "282",
pages = "1--9",
journal = "Royal Society of London. Proceedings B. Biological Sciences",
issn = "0962-8452",
publisher = "Royal Society of London",
number = "1798",

}

Plowright, RK, Eby, P, Hudson, PJ, Smith, IL, Westcott, D, Bryden, WL, Middleton, D, Reid, PA, McFarlane, RA, Martin, G, Tabor, GM, Skerratt, LF, Anderson, DL, Crameri, G, Quammen, D, Jordan, D, Freeman, P, Wang, LF, Epstein, JH, Marsh, GA, Kung, NY & McCallum, H 2015, 'Ecological dynamics of emerging bat virus spillover', Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, vol. 282, no. 1798, 20142124, pp. 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2014.2124

Ecological dynamics of emerging bat virus spillover. / Plowright, Raina K.; Eby, Peggy; Hudson, Peter J.; Smith, Ina L.; Westcott, David; Bryden, Wayne L.; Middleton, Deborah; Reid, Peter A.; McFarlane, Rosemary A.; Martin, Gerardo; Tabor, Gary M.; Skerratt, Lee F.; Anderson, Dale L.; Crameri, Gary; Quammen, David; Jordan, David; Freeman, Paul; Wang, Lin Fa; Epstein, Jonathan H.; Marsh, Glenn A.; Kung, Nina Y.; McCallum, Hamish.

In: Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, Vol. 282, No. 1798, 20142124, 2015, p. 1-9.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Ecological dynamics of emerging bat virus spillover

AU - Plowright, Raina K.

AU - Eby, Peggy

AU - Hudson, Peter J.

AU - Smith, Ina L.

AU - Westcott, David

AU - Bryden, Wayne L.

AU - Middleton, Deborah

AU - Reid, Peter A.

AU - McFarlane, Rosemary A.

AU - Martin, Gerardo

AU - Tabor, Gary M.

AU - Skerratt, Lee F.

AU - Anderson, Dale L.

AU - Crameri, Gary

AU - Quammen, David

AU - Jordan, David

AU - Freeman, Paul

AU - Wang, Lin Fa

AU - Epstein, Jonathan H.

AU - Marsh, Glenn A.

AU - Kung, Nina Y.

AU - McCallum, Hamish

PY - 2015

Y1 - 2015

N2 - Viruses that originate in bats may be the most notorious emerging zoonoses that spill over from wildlife into domestic animals and humans. Understanding how these infections filter through ecological systems to cause disease in humans is of profound importance to public health. Transmission of viruses from bats to humans requires a hierarchy of enabling conditions that connect the distribution of reservoir hosts, viral infection within these hosts, and exposure and susceptibility of recipient hosts. For many emerging bat viruses, spillover also requires viral shedding from bats, and survival of the virus in the environment. Focusing on Hendra virus, but also addressing Nipah virus, Ebola virus, Marburg virus and coronaviruses, we delineate this cross-species spillover dynamic from the within-host processes that drive virus excretion to land-use changes that increase interaction among species. We describe how land-use changes may affect co-occurrence and contact between bats and recipient hosts. Two hypotheses may explain temporal and spatial pulses of virus shedding in bat populations: episodic shedding from persistently infected bats or transient epidemics that occur as virus is transmitted among bat populations. Management of livestock also may affect the probability of exposure and disease. Interventions to decrease the probability of virus spillover can be implemented at multiple levels from targeting the reservoir host to managing recipient host exposure and susceptibility.

AB - Viruses that originate in bats may be the most notorious emerging zoonoses that spill over from wildlife into domestic animals and humans. Understanding how these infections filter through ecological systems to cause disease in humans is of profound importance to public health. Transmission of viruses from bats to humans requires a hierarchy of enabling conditions that connect the distribution of reservoir hosts, viral infection within these hosts, and exposure and susceptibility of recipient hosts. For many emerging bat viruses, spillover also requires viral shedding from bats, and survival of the virus in the environment. Focusing on Hendra virus, but also addressing Nipah virus, Ebola virus, Marburg virus and coronaviruses, we delineate this cross-species spillover dynamic from the within-host processes that drive virus excretion to land-use changes that increase interaction among species. We describe how land-use changes may affect co-occurrence and contact between bats and recipient hosts. Two hypotheses may explain temporal and spatial pulses of virus shedding in bat populations: episodic shedding from persistently infected bats or transient epidemics that occur as virus is transmitted among bat populations. Management of livestock also may affect the probability of exposure and disease. Interventions to decrease the probability of virus spillover can be implemented at multiple levels from targeting the reservoir host to managing recipient host exposure and susceptibility.

KW - Ebola virus

KW - Emerging infectious diseases of bat origin

KW - Hendra virus in flying-foxes

KW - Marburg virus

KW - Nipah virus

KW - severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84910653581&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1098/rspb.2014.2124

DO - 10.1098/rspb.2014.2124

M3 - Article

VL - 282

SP - 1

EP - 9

JO - Royal Society of London. Proceedings B. Biological Sciences

JF - Royal Society of London. Proceedings B. Biological Sciences

SN - 0962-8452

IS - 1798

M1 - 20142124

ER -

Plowright RK, Eby P, Hudson PJ, Smith IL, Westcott D, Bryden WL et al. Ecological dynamics of emerging bat virus spillover. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 2015;282(1798):1-9. 20142124. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2014.2124