Effect of a 16-week Bikram yoga program on heart rate variability and associated cardiovascular disease risk factors in stressed and sedentary adults

A randomized controlled trial.

Zoe Hewett, Kate Pumpa, Caroline Smith, Paul Fahey, Birinder Cheema

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    3 Citations (Scopus)
    4 Downloads (Pure)

    Abstract

    Background: Chronic activation of the stress-response can contribute to cardiovascular disease risk, particularly in sedentary individuals. This study investigated the effect of a Bikram yoga intervention on the high frequency power component of heart rate variability (HRV) and associated cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors (i.e. additional domains of HRV, hemodynamic, hematologic, anthropometric and body composition outcome measures) in stressed and sedentary adults. Methods: Eligible adults were randomized to an experimental group (n = 29) or a no treatment control group (n = 34). Experimental group participants were instructed to attend three to five supervised Bikram yoga classes per week for 16 weeks at local studios. Outcome measures were assessed at baseline (week 0) and completion (week 17). Results: Sixty-three adults (37.2 ± 10.8 years, 79% women) were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. The experimental group attended 27 ± 18 classes. Analyses of covariance revealed no significant change in the high-frequency component of HRV (p = 0.912, partial η² = 0.000) or in any secondary outcome measure between groups over time. However, regression analyses revealed that higher attendance in the experimental group was associated with significant reductions in diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.039; partial η² = 0.154), body fat percentage (p = 0.001, partial η² = 0.379), fat mass (p = 0.003, partial η² = 0.294) and body mass index (p = 0.05, partial η² = 0.139). Conclusions: A 16-week Bikram yoga program did not increase the high frequency power component of HRV or any other CVD risk factors investigated. As revealed by post hoc analyses, low adherence likely contributed to the null effects. Future studies are required to address barriers to adherence to better elucidate the doseresponse effects of Bikram yoga practice as a medium to lower stress-related CVD risk. Trial registration: Retrospectively registered with Australia New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12616000867493. Registered 04 July 2016.
    Original languageEnglish
    Article number226
    Pages (from-to)1-11
    Number of pages11
    JournalBMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
    Volume17
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 21 Apr 2017

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    Yoga
    Cardiovascular Diseases
    Randomized Controlled Trials
    Heart Rate
    Outcome Assessment (Health Care)
    Blood Pressure
    Intention to Treat Analysis
    Body Composition
    New Zealand
    Registries
    Adipose Tissue
    Body Mass Index
    Hemodynamics
    Fats
    Regression Analysis
    Clinical Trials
    Control Groups

    Cite this

    @article{6e62772682d24957a66a02643183b70f,
    title = "Effect of a 16-week Bikram yoga program on heart rate variability and associated cardiovascular disease risk factors in stressed and sedentary adults: A randomized controlled trial.",
    abstract = "Background: Chronic activation of the stress-response can contribute to cardiovascular disease risk, particularly in sedentary individuals. This study investigated the effect of a Bikram yoga intervention on the high frequency power component of heart rate variability (HRV) and associated cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors (i.e. additional domains of HRV, hemodynamic, hematologic, anthropometric and body composition outcome measures) in stressed and sedentary adults. Methods: Eligible adults were randomized to an experimental group (n = 29) or a no treatment control group (n = 34). Experimental group participants were instructed to attend three to five supervised Bikram yoga classes per week for 16 weeks at local studios. Outcome measures were assessed at baseline (week 0) and completion (week 17). Results: Sixty-three adults (37.2 ± 10.8 years, 79{\%} women) were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. The experimental group attended 27 ± 18 classes. Analyses of covariance revealed no significant change in the high-frequency component of HRV (p = 0.912, partial η² = 0.000) or in any secondary outcome measure between groups over time. However, regression analyses revealed that higher attendance in the experimental group was associated with significant reductions in diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.039; partial η² = 0.154), body fat percentage (p = 0.001, partial η² = 0.379), fat mass (p = 0.003, partial η² = 0.294) and body mass index (p = 0.05, partial η² = 0.139). Conclusions: A 16-week Bikram yoga program did not increase the high frequency power component of HRV or any other CVD risk factors investigated. As revealed by post hoc analyses, low adherence likely contributed to the null effects. Future studies are required to address barriers to adherence to better elucidate the doseresponse effects of Bikram yoga practice as a medium to lower stress-related CVD risk. Trial registration: Retrospectively registered with Australia New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12616000867493. Registered 04 July 2016.",
    keywords = "Hatha yoga, obesity, overweight, inactivity, health, metabolic disease, physiological stress",
    author = "Zoe Hewett and Kate Pumpa and Caroline Smith and Paul Fahey and Birinder Cheema",
    year = "2017",
    month = "4",
    day = "21",
    doi = "10.1186/s12906-017-1740-1",
    language = "English",
    volume = "17",
    pages = "1--11",
    journal = "BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine",
    issn = "1472-6882",
    publisher = "BioMed Central",

    }

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Effect of a 16-week Bikram yoga program on heart rate variability and associated cardiovascular disease risk factors in stressed and sedentary adults

    T2 - A randomized controlled trial.

    AU - Hewett, Zoe

    AU - Pumpa, Kate

    AU - Smith, Caroline

    AU - Fahey, Paul

    AU - Cheema, Birinder

    PY - 2017/4/21

    Y1 - 2017/4/21

    N2 - Background: Chronic activation of the stress-response can contribute to cardiovascular disease risk, particularly in sedentary individuals. This study investigated the effect of a Bikram yoga intervention on the high frequency power component of heart rate variability (HRV) and associated cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors (i.e. additional domains of HRV, hemodynamic, hematologic, anthropometric and body composition outcome measures) in stressed and sedentary adults. Methods: Eligible adults were randomized to an experimental group (n = 29) or a no treatment control group (n = 34). Experimental group participants were instructed to attend three to five supervised Bikram yoga classes per week for 16 weeks at local studios. Outcome measures were assessed at baseline (week 0) and completion (week 17). Results: Sixty-three adults (37.2 ± 10.8 years, 79% women) were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. The experimental group attended 27 ± 18 classes. Analyses of covariance revealed no significant change in the high-frequency component of HRV (p = 0.912, partial η² = 0.000) or in any secondary outcome measure between groups over time. However, regression analyses revealed that higher attendance in the experimental group was associated with significant reductions in diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.039; partial η² = 0.154), body fat percentage (p = 0.001, partial η² = 0.379), fat mass (p = 0.003, partial η² = 0.294) and body mass index (p = 0.05, partial η² = 0.139). Conclusions: A 16-week Bikram yoga program did not increase the high frequency power component of HRV or any other CVD risk factors investigated. As revealed by post hoc analyses, low adherence likely contributed to the null effects. Future studies are required to address barriers to adherence to better elucidate the doseresponse effects of Bikram yoga practice as a medium to lower stress-related CVD risk. Trial registration: Retrospectively registered with Australia New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12616000867493. Registered 04 July 2016.

    AB - Background: Chronic activation of the stress-response can contribute to cardiovascular disease risk, particularly in sedentary individuals. This study investigated the effect of a Bikram yoga intervention on the high frequency power component of heart rate variability (HRV) and associated cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors (i.e. additional domains of HRV, hemodynamic, hematologic, anthropometric and body composition outcome measures) in stressed and sedentary adults. Methods: Eligible adults were randomized to an experimental group (n = 29) or a no treatment control group (n = 34). Experimental group participants were instructed to attend three to five supervised Bikram yoga classes per week for 16 weeks at local studios. Outcome measures were assessed at baseline (week 0) and completion (week 17). Results: Sixty-three adults (37.2 ± 10.8 years, 79% women) were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. The experimental group attended 27 ± 18 classes. Analyses of covariance revealed no significant change in the high-frequency component of HRV (p = 0.912, partial η² = 0.000) or in any secondary outcome measure between groups over time. However, regression analyses revealed that higher attendance in the experimental group was associated with significant reductions in diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.039; partial η² = 0.154), body fat percentage (p = 0.001, partial η² = 0.379), fat mass (p = 0.003, partial η² = 0.294) and body mass index (p = 0.05, partial η² = 0.139). Conclusions: A 16-week Bikram yoga program did not increase the high frequency power component of HRV or any other CVD risk factors investigated. As revealed by post hoc analyses, low adherence likely contributed to the null effects. Future studies are required to address barriers to adherence to better elucidate the doseresponse effects of Bikram yoga practice as a medium to lower stress-related CVD risk. Trial registration: Retrospectively registered with Australia New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12616000867493. Registered 04 July 2016.

    KW - Hatha yoga

    KW - obesity

    KW - overweight

    KW - inactivity

    KW - health

    KW - metabolic disease

    KW - physiological stress

    U2 - 10.1186/s12906-017-1740-1

    DO - 10.1186/s12906-017-1740-1

    M3 - Article

    VL - 17

    SP - 1

    EP - 11

    JO - BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    JF - BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    SN - 1472-6882

    M1 - 226

    ER -