There is limited knowledge on the effect of contextual and environmental factors on the risk of anaemia, as well as the spatial distribution of anaemia in the Sub-Saharan Africa region. In this study, we used multi-country data from the Demographic & Health survey (DHS) with 270,011 observations and PM2.5 data from NASA, applied to the spatial risk pattern of anaemia in the SSA region. The prevalence of anaemia amongst women (41%) was almost twice that of men (22%). A Bayesian hierarchical model showed that individual household, neighbourhood and regional socioeconomic factors were significantly associated with the likelihood of being anaemic. 1 μg/m3 increase in cumulative lifetime PM2.5 exposure accounted for 1% (β = 0.011, CI = 0.008 – 0.015) increase in the likelihood of being anaemic. The results suggest the need for a multidimensional approach to tackle anaemia in the Sub-Saharan African region and identify high-risk areas for target intervention policies or programs.