Effect of postactivation potentiation on swimming starts in international sprint swimmers

Liam P Kilduff, D.J. Cunningham, N.J. Owen, D.J. West, R.M. Bracken, C.J. Cook

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Abstract

Kilduff, LP, Cunningham, DJ, Owen, NJ, West, DJ, Bracken, RM, and Cook, CJ. Effect of postactivation potentiation on swimmingstarts in international sprint swimmers. J Strength Cond Res 25(9): 2418-2423, 2011-The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of postactivation potentiation (PAP) on swim start performance (time to 15 m) in a group of international sprint swimmers. Nine international sprint swimmers (7 men and 2 women) volunteered and gave informed consent for this study, which was approved by the university ethics committee. Initially, swimmers performed a countermovement jump (CMJ) on a portable force platform (FP) at baseline and at the following time points; 15 seconds, 4, 8, 12, and 16 minutes after a PAP stimulus (1 set of 3 repetitions at 87% 1 repetition maximum [RM]) to individually determine the recovery time required to observe enhanced muscle performance. On 2 additional days, swimmers performed a swim start to 15 m under 50-m freestyle race conditions, which was preceded by either their individualized race specific warm-up or a PAP stimulus (1 set of 3 repetitions at 87% 1RM). Both trials were recorded on 2cameras operating at 50 Hz with camera 1 located at the start and camera 2 at the 15-m mark. Peak vertical force (PVF) and peak horizontal force (PHF) were measured during all swim starts from a portable FP placed on top of the swim block. A repeated measures anal sis of variance revealed a significant time effect with regard to power output (PO) (F = 20.963, p <0.01) and jump height (JH) (F = 14.634, p <0.01) with a paired comparison indicating a significant increase in PO and JH after 8 minutes of recovery from the PAP stimulus. There was a significant increase in both PHF and PVF after the PAP stimulus compared to the swim-specific warm-up during the swim start (PHF 770 ± 228 vs. 814 ± 263 N, p = 0.018; PVF: 1,462 ± 280 vs. 1,518 ± 311 N, p = 0.038); however, time to 15 m was the same when both starts were compared (7.1 ± 0.8 vs. 7.1 ± 0.8 seconds, p = 0.447). The results from this study indicate that muscle performance during a CMJ is enhanced after a PAP stimulus providing adequate recovery (∼8 minutes) is given between the 2 activities. In addition, this study demonstrated that swimmers performed equally well in terms of time to 15 m when a PAP stimulus was compared to their individualized race specific warm-up and indicates that PAP may be a useful addition to a warm-up protocol before races. However, more research is required to fully understand the role PAP plays in swim performance. © 2011 National Strength and Conditioning Association.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2418-2423
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Volume25
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2011
Externally publishedYes

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Kilduff, L. P., Cunningham, D. J., Owen, N. J., West, D. J., Bracken, R. M., & Cook, C. J. (2011). Effect of postactivation potentiation on swimming starts in international sprint swimmers. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 25(9), 2418-2423. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e318201bf7a
Kilduff, Liam P ; Cunningham, D.J. ; Owen, N.J. ; West, D.J. ; Bracken, R.M. ; Cook, C.J. / Effect of postactivation potentiation on swimming starts in international sprint swimmers. In: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2011 ; Vol. 25, No. 9. pp. 2418-2423.
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Effect of postactivation potentiation on swimming starts in international sprint swimmers. / Kilduff, Liam P; Cunningham, D.J.; Owen, N.J.; West, D.J.; Bracken, R.M.; Cook, C.J.

In: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, Vol. 25, No. 9, 2011, p. 2418-2423.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Effect of postactivation potentiation on swimming starts in international sprint swimmers

AU - Kilduff, Liam P

AU - Cunningham, D.J.

AU - Owen, N.J.

AU - West, D.J.

AU - Bracken, R.M.

AU - Cook, C.J.

N1 - Cited By :37 Export Date: 25 May 2017

PY - 2011

Y1 - 2011

N2 - Kilduff, LP, Cunningham, DJ, Owen, NJ, West, DJ, Bracken, RM, and Cook, CJ. Effect of postactivation potentiation on swimmingstarts in international sprint swimmers. J Strength Cond Res 25(9): 2418-2423, 2011-The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of postactivation potentiation (PAP) on swim start performance (time to 15 m) in a group of international sprint swimmers. Nine international sprint swimmers (7 men and 2 women) volunteered and gave informed consent for this study, which was approved by the university ethics committee. Initially, swimmers performed a countermovement jump (CMJ) on a portable force platform (FP) at baseline and at the following time points; 15 seconds, 4, 8, 12, and 16 minutes after a PAP stimulus (1 set of 3 repetitions at 87% 1 repetition maximum [RM]) to individually determine the recovery time required to observe enhanced muscle performance. On 2 additional days, swimmers performed a swim start to 15 m under 50-m freestyle race conditions, which was preceded by either their individualized race specific warm-up or a PAP stimulus (1 set of 3 repetitions at 87% 1RM). Both trials were recorded on 2cameras operating at 50 Hz with camera 1 located at the start and camera 2 at the 15-m mark. Peak vertical force (PVF) and peak horizontal force (PHF) were measured during all swim starts from a portable FP placed on top of the swim block. A repeated measures anal sis of variance revealed a significant time effect with regard to power output (PO) (F = 20.963, p <0.01) and jump height (JH) (F = 14.634, p <0.01) with a paired comparison indicating a significant increase in PO and JH after 8 minutes of recovery from the PAP stimulus. There was a significant increase in both PHF and PVF after the PAP stimulus compared to the swim-specific warm-up during the swim start (PHF 770 ± 228 vs. 814 ± 263 N, p = 0.018; PVF: 1,462 ± 280 vs. 1,518 ± 311 N, p = 0.038); however, time to 15 m was the same when both starts were compared (7.1 ± 0.8 vs. 7.1 ± 0.8 seconds, p = 0.447). The results from this study indicate that muscle performance during a CMJ is enhanced after a PAP stimulus providing adequate recovery (∼8 minutes) is given between the 2 activities. In addition, this study demonstrated that swimmers performed equally well in terms of time to 15 m when a PAP stimulus was compared to their individualized race specific warm-up and indicates that PAP may be a useful addition to a warm-up protocol before races. However, more research is required to fully understand the role PAP plays in swim performance. © 2011 National Strength and Conditioning Association.

AB - Kilduff, LP, Cunningham, DJ, Owen, NJ, West, DJ, Bracken, RM, and Cook, CJ. Effect of postactivation potentiation on swimmingstarts in international sprint swimmers. J Strength Cond Res 25(9): 2418-2423, 2011-The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of postactivation potentiation (PAP) on swim start performance (time to 15 m) in a group of international sprint swimmers. Nine international sprint swimmers (7 men and 2 women) volunteered and gave informed consent for this study, which was approved by the university ethics committee. Initially, swimmers performed a countermovement jump (CMJ) on a portable force platform (FP) at baseline and at the following time points; 15 seconds, 4, 8, 12, and 16 minutes after a PAP stimulus (1 set of 3 repetitions at 87% 1 repetition maximum [RM]) to individually determine the recovery time required to observe enhanced muscle performance. On 2 additional days, swimmers performed a swim start to 15 m under 50-m freestyle race conditions, which was preceded by either their individualized race specific warm-up or a PAP stimulus (1 set of 3 repetitions at 87% 1RM). Both trials were recorded on 2cameras operating at 50 Hz with camera 1 located at the start and camera 2 at the 15-m mark. Peak vertical force (PVF) and peak horizontal force (PHF) were measured during all swim starts from a portable FP placed on top of the swim block. A repeated measures anal sis of variance revealed a significant time effect with regard to power output (PO) (F = 20.963, p <0.01) and jump height (JH) (F = 14.634, p <0.01) with a paired comparison indicating a significant increase in PO and JH after 8 minutes of recovery from the PAP stimulus. There was a significant increase in both PHF and PVF after the PAP stimulus compared to the swim-specific warm-up during the swim start (PHF 770 ± 228 vs. 814 ± 263 N, p = 0.018; PVF: 1,462 ± 280 vs. 1,518 ± 311 N, p = 0.038); however, time to 15 m was the same when both starts were compared (7.1 ± 0.8 vs. 7.1 ± 0.8 seconds, p = 0.447). The results from this study indicate that muscle performance during a CMJ is enhanced after a PAP stimulus providing adequate recovery (∼8 minutes) is given between the 2 activities. In addition, this study demonstrated that swimmers performed equally well in terms of time to 15 m when a PAP stimulus was compared to their individualized race specific warm-up and indicates that PAP may be a useful addition to a warm-up protocol before races. However, more research is required to fully understand the role PAP plays in swim performance. © 2011 National Strength and Conditioning Association.

KW - Elite athletes

KW - Power development

KW - Time to 15 m

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JO - Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research

JF - Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research

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