Studies of the relationship between walking and urban form consistently show that pedestrian-friendly neighbourhoods encourage local walking. However, the geographic scale of measurement of the built environment for developing walkability indices and their relationship with different types of walking (e.g. for transport and recreation) has not been fully examined. In this study, objective measures of the built environment were developed at three geographic scales: suburb, census collection district, and 15min walk neighbourhood for each participant. Walking for transport and recreation within the neighbourhood was measured using the Neighbourhood Physical Activity Questionnaire.
Learnihan, V., Van Niel, K., Giles-Corti, B., & Knuiman, M. (2011). Effect of Scale on the Links between Walking and Urban Design. Geographical Research, 49(2), 183-191. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-5871.2011.00689.x