Background: Antiplatelet medications such as aspirin and clopidogrel are used following thrombotic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) to prevent a recurrent stroke. However, the antiplatelet treatments fail frequently, and patients experience recurrent stroke. One approach to lower the rates of recurrence, may be the individualized antiplatelet therapies (antiplatelet therapy modification (ATM)) based on the results of platelet function analysis (PFA). This review was undertaken to gather and analyse the evidence about the effectiveness of such approaches. Methods: We searched Medline, CINAHL, Embase, Web of Science and Cochrane databases to 7 January 2020. Results: Two observational studies involving 1136 patients were included. The overall effects of PFA-based ATM on recurrent strokes (OR 1.05; 95% CI 0.69 to 1.58), any bleeding risk (OR 1.39; 95% CI 0.92 to 2.10) or death hazard from any cause (OR 1.19; 95% CI 0.62 to 2.29) were not significantly different from the standard antiplatelet therapy without ATM. Conclusions: The two studies showed opposite effects of PFA-guided ATM on the recurrent strokes in aspirin non-responders, leading to an insignificant difference in the subgroup meta-analysis (OR 1.59; 95% CI 0.07 to 33.77), while the rates of any bleeding events (OR 1.04; 95% CI 0.49 to 2.17) or death from any cause (OR 1.17; 95% CI 0.41 to 3.35) were not significantly different between aspirin non-responders with ATM and those without ATM. There is a need for large randomized controlled trials which account for potential confounders such as ischemic stroke subtypes, technical variations in the testing protocols, patient adherence to therapy, and pharmacogenetic differences.