Effects of age and body mass index on breast characteristics

a cluster analysis

Celeste E. Coltman, Julie R. Steele, Deirdre E. McGhee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Limited research has quantified variation in the characteristics of the breasts among women and determined how these breast characteristics are influenced by age and body mass. The aim of this study was to classify the breasts of women in the community into different categories based on comprehensive and objective measurements of the characteristics of their breasts and torsos, and to determine the effect of age and body mass index on the prevalence of these breast categories. Four breast characteristic clusters were identified (X-Large, Very-ptotic & Splayed; Large, Ptotic & Splayed; Medium & Mildly-ptotic; and Small & Non-ptotic), with age and BMI shown to significantly affect the breast characteristic clusters. These results highlight the difference in breast characteristics exhibited among women and how these clusters are affected by age and BMI. The breast characteristic clusters identified in this study could be used as a basis for future bra designs and sizing systems in order to improve bra fit for women. Practitioner summary: This original research provides evidence for bra designers and manufacturers on the diverse breast characteristics exhibited by women within the population and the significant effect that both body mass index and age have on the breast characteristic clusters. Future bra designs should consider the variation in breast characteristics among women. Abbreviations: BMI: Body Mass Index; UBCC: Under-bust chest circumference.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1232-1245
Number of pages14
JournalErgonomics
Volume61
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2 Sep 2018
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Cluster analysis
cluster analysis
Cluster Analysis
Breast
Body Mass Index
Torso
Research
community
evidence
Thorax

Cite this

Coltman, Celeste E. ; Steele, Julie R. ; McGhee, Deirdre E. / Effects of age and body mass index on breast characteristics : a cluster analysis. In: Ergonomics. 2018 ; Vol. 61, No. 9. pp. 1232-1245.
@article{735e32303fe24ff0b9ce89f2aaa9dbd1,
title = "Effects of age and body mass index on breast characteristics: a cluster analysis",
abstract = "Limited research has quantified variation in the characteristics of the breasts among women and determined how these breast characteristics are influenced by age and body mass. The aim of this study was to classify the breasts of women in the community into different categories based on comprehensive and objective measurements of the characteristics of their breasts and torsos, and to determine the effect of age and body mass index on the prevalence of these breast categories. Four breast characteristic clusters were identified (X-Large, Very-ptotic & Splayed; Large, Ptotic & Splayed; Medium & Mildly-ptotic; and Small & Non-ptotic), with age and BMI shown to significantly affect the breast characteristic clusters. These results highlight the difference in breast characteristics exhibited among women and how these clusters are affected by age and BMI. The breast characteristic clusters identified in this study could be used as a basis for future bra designs and sizing systems in order to improve bra fit for women. Practitioner summary: This original research provides evidence for bra designers and manufacturers on the diverse breast characteristics exhibited by women within the population and the significant effect that both body mass index and age have on the breast characteristic clusters. Future bra designs should consider the variation in breast characteristics among women. Abbreviations: BMI: Body Mass Index; UBCC: Under-bust chest circumference.",
keywords = "age, body mass index, Breast characteristics",
author = "Coltman, {Celeste E.} and Steele, {Julie R.} and McGhee, {Deirdre E.}",
year = "2018",
month = "9",
day = "2",
doi = "10.1080/00140139.2018.1481229",
language = "English",
volume = "61",
pages = "1232--1245",
journal = "Ergonomics",
issn = "0014-0139",
publisher = "Taylor and Francis Ltd.",
number = "9",

}

Effects of age and body mass index on breast characteristics : a cluster analysis. / Coltman, Celeste E.; Steele, Julie R.; McGhee, Deirdre E.

In: Ergonomics, Vol. 61, No. 9, 02.09.2018, p. 1232-1245.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Effects of age and body mass index on breast characteristics

T2 - a cluster analysis

AU - Coltman, Celeste E.

AU - Steele, Julie R.

AU - McGhee, Deirdre E.

PY - 2018/9/2

Y1 - 2018/9/2

N2 - Limited research has quantified variation in the characteristics of the breasts among women and determined how these breast characteristics are influenced by age and body mass. The aim of this study was to classify the breasts of women in the community into different categories based on comprehensive and objective measurements of the characteristics of their breasts and torsos, and to determine the effect of age and body mass index on the prevalence of these breast categories. Four breast characteristic clusters were identified (X-Large, Very-ptotic & Splayed; Large, Ptotic & Splayed; Medium & Mildly-ptotic; and Small & Non-ptotic), with age and BMI shown to significantly affect the breast characteristic clusters. These results highlight the difference in breast characteristics exhibited among women and how these clusters are affected by age and BMI. The breast characteristic clusters identified in this study could be used as a basis for future bra designs and sizing systems in order to improve bra fit for women. Practitioner summary: This original research provides evidence for bra designers and manufacturers on the diverse breast characteristics exhibited by women within the population and the significant effect that both body mass index and age have on the breast characteristic clusters. Future bra designs should consider the variation in breast characteristics among women. Abbreviations: BMI: Body Mass Index; UBCC: Under-bust chest circumference.

AB - Limited research has quantified variation in the characteristics of the breasts among women and determined how these breast characteristics are influenced by age and body mass. The aim of this study was to classify the breasts of women in the community into different categories based on comprehensive and objective measurements of the characteristics of their breasts and torsos, and to determine the effect of age and body mass index on the prevalence of these breast categories. Four breast characteristic clusters were identified (X-Large, Very-ptotic & Splayed; Large, Ptotic & Splayed; Medium & Mildly-ptotic; and Small & Non-ptotic), with age and BMI shown to significantly affect the breast characteristic clusters. These results highlight the difference in breast characteristics exhibited among women and how these clusters are affected by age and BMI. The breast characteristic clusters identified in this study could be used as a basis for future bra designs and sizing systems in order to improve bra fit for women. Practitioner summary: This original research provides evidence for bra designers and manufacturers on the diverse breast characteristics exhibited by women within the population and the significant effect that both body mass index and age have on the breast characteristic clusters. Future bra designs should consider the variation in breast characteristics among women. Abbreviations: BMI: Body Mass Index; UBCC: Under-bust chest circumference.

KW - age

KW - body mass index

KW - Breast characteristics

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85049809502&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1080/00140139.2018.1481229

DO - 10.1080/00140139.2018.1481229

M3 - Article

VL - 61

SP - 1232

EP - 1245

JO - Ergonomics

JF - Ergonomics

SN - 0014-0139

IS - 9

ER -