Effects of deception on exercise performance

implications for determinants of fatigue in humans

Mark Stone, Kevin Thomas, Michael Wilkinson, Andrew Jones, Alan St Claire Gibson, Kevin Thompson

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    51 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether it was possible to reduce the time taken to complete a 4000-m cycling time trial by misleading participants into believing they were racing against a previous trial, when, in fact, the power output was 2% greater.

    METHODS: Nine trained male cyclists each completed four 4000-m time trials. The first trial was a habituation and the data from the second trial was used to form a baseline (BL). During trials 3 and 4, participants raced against an avatar, which they were informed represented their BL performance. However, whereas one of these trials was an accurate (ACC) representation of BL, the power output in the other trial was set at 102% of BL and formed the deception condition (DEC). Oxygen uptake and RER were measured continuously and used to determine aerobic and anaerobic contributions to power output.

    RESULTS: There was a significant difference between trials for time to completion (F = 15.3, P = 0.00). Participants completed DEC more quickly than BL (90% CI = 2.1-10.1 s) and ACC (90% CI = 1.5-5.4 s) and completed ACC more quickly than BL (90% CI = 0.5-4.8 s). The difference in performance between DEC and ACC was attributable to a greater anaerobic contribution to power output at 90% of the total distance (F = 5.3, P = 0.02, 90% CI = 4-37 W).

    CONCLUSIONS: The provision of surreptitiously augmented feedback derived from a previous performance reduces time taken for cyclists to accomplish a time trial of known duration. This suggests that cyclists operate with a metabolic reserve even during maximal time trials and that this reserve can be accessed after deception.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)534-541
    Number of pages8
    JournalMedicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
    Volume44
    Issue number3
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - Mar 2012

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    Stone, Mark ; Thomas, Kevin ; Wilkinson, Michael ; Jones, Andrew ; St Claire Gibson, Alan ; Thompson, Kevin. / Effects of deception on exercise performance : implications for determinants of fatigue in humans. In: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 2012 ; Vol. 44, No. 3. pp. 534-541.
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    abstract = "PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether it was possible to reduce the time taken to complete a 4000-m cycling time trial by misleading participants into believing they were racing against a previous trial, when, in fact, the power output was 2{\%} greater.METHODS: Nine trained male cyclists each completed four 4000-m time trials. The first trial was a habituation and the data from the second trial was used to form a baseline (BL). During trials 3 and 4, participants raced against an avatar, which they were informed represented their BL performance. However, whereas one of these trials was an accurate (ACC) representation of BL, the power output in the other trial was set at 102{\%} of BL and formed the deception condition (DEC). Oxygen uptake and RER were measured continuously and used to determine aerobic and anaerobic contributions to power output.RESULTS: There was a significant difference between trials for time to completion (F = 15.3, P = 0.00). Participants completed DEC more quickly than BL (90{\%} CI = 2.1-10.1 s) and ACC (90{\%} CI = 1.5-5.4 s) and completed ACC more quickly than BL (90{\%} CI = 0.5-4.8 s). The difference in performance between DEC and ACC was attributable to a greater anaerobic contribution to power output at 90{\%} of the total distance (F = 5.3, P = 0.02, 90{\%} CI = 4-37 W).CONCLUSIONS: The provision of surreptitiously augmented feedback derived from a previous performance reduces time taken for cyclists to accomplish a time trial of known duration. This suggests that cyclists operate with a metabolic reserve even during maximal time trials and that this reserve can be accessed after deception.",
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    Effects of deception on exercise performance : implications for determinants of fatigue in humans. / Stone, Mark; Thomas, Kevin; Wilkinson, Michael; Jones, Andrew; St Claire Gibson, Alan; Thompson, Kevin.

    In: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, Vol. 44, No. 3, 03.2012, p. 534-541.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Effects of deception on exercise performance

    T2 - implications for determinants of fatigue in humans

    AU - Stone, Mark

    AU - Thomas, Kevin

    AU - Wilkinson, Michael

    AU - Jones, Andrew

    AU - St Claire Gibson, Alan

    AU - Thompson, Kevin

    PY - 2012/3

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    N2 - PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether it was possible to reduce the time taken to complete a 4000-m cycling time trial by misleading participants into believing they were racing against a previous trial, when, in fact, the power output was 2% greater.METHODS: Nine trained male cyclists each completed four 4000-m time trials. The first trial was a habituation and the data from the second trial was used to form a baseline (BL). During trials 3 and 4, participants raced against an avatar, which they were informed represented their BL performance. However, whereas one of these trials was an accurate (ACC) representation of BL, the power output in the other trial was set at 102% of BL and formed the deception condition (DEC). Oxygen uptake and RER were measured continuously and used to determine aerobic and anaerobic contributions to power output.RESULTS: There was a significant difference between trials for time to completion (F = 15.3, P = 0.00). Participants completed DEC more quickly than BL (90% CI = 2.1-10.1 s) and ACC (90% CI = 1.5-5.4 s) and completed ACC more quickly than BL (90% CI = 0.5-4.8 s). The difference in performance between DEC and ACC was attributable to a greater anaerobic contribution to power output at 90% of the total distance (F = 5.3, P = 0.02, 90% CI = 4-37 W).CONCLUSIONS: The provision of surreptitiously augmented feedback derived from a previous performance reduces time taken for cyclists to accomplish a time trial of known duration. This suggests that cyclists operate with a metabolic reserve even during maximal time trials and that this reserve can be accessed after deception.

    AB - PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether it was possible to reduce the time taken to complete a 4000-m cycling time trial by misleading participants into believing they were racing against a previous trial, when, in fact, the power output was 2% greater.METHODS: Nine trained male cyclists each completed four 4000-m time trials. The first trial was a habituation and the data from the second trial was used to form a baseline (BL). During trials 3 and 4, participants raced against an avatar, which they were informed represented their BL performance. However, whereas one of these trials was an accurate (ACC) representation of BL, the power output in the other trial was set at 102% of BL and formed the deception condition (DEC). Oxygen uptake and RER were measured continuously and used to determine aerobic and anaerobic contributions to power output.RESULTS: There was a significant difference between trials for time to completion (F = 15.3, P = 0.00). Participants completed DEC more quickly than BL (90% CI = 2.1-10.1 s) and ACC (90% CI = 1.5-5.4 s) and completed ACC more quickly than BL (90% CI = 0.5-4.8 s). The difference in performance between DEC and ACC was attributable to a greater anaerobic contribution to power output at 90% of the total distance (F = 5.3, P = 0.02, 90% CI = 4-37 W).CONCLUSIONS: The provision of surreptitiously augmented feedback derived from a previous performance reduces time taken for cyclists to accomplish a time trial of known duration. This suggests that cyclists operate with a metabolic reserve even during maximal time trials and that this reserve can be accessed after deception.

    KW - FEEDBACK

    KW - PACING STRATEGY

    KW - PERCEIVED EXERTION

    KW - TIME TRIAL

    U2 - 10.1249/MSS.0b013e318232cf77

    DO - 10.1249/MSS.0b013e318232cf77

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    VL - 44

    SP - 534

    EP - 541

    JO - Medicine Science in Sports Exercise

    JF - Medicine Science in Sports Exercise

    SN - 0195-9131

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    ER -