Effects of detraining in age-group swimmers performance, energetics and kinematics

Rodrigo Zacca, Argyris Toubekis, Laura Freitas, Ana Filipa Silva, Rui Azevedo, João Paulo Vilas-Boas, David B Pyne, Flávio A De S Castro, Ricardo J Fernandes

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Changes in performance, energetics and kinematics during age-group swimmers off-season inform the prescription of training for the following season. Age-group swimmers (n = 15, age 14.3 ± 0.7 years) of equal maturational stage performed a 400-m front crawl (T400) before and after a four-weeks training cessation period. Performance-related energetic and kinematic variables were obtained controlling for anthropometric changes and non-swimming specific physical activities during off-season. T400 time decreased 3.8% (95%CI 1.4 to 6.1%; p < 0.01; d = 0.90) with non-specific physical activities (1814 ± 1989 MET-min·wk-1) accounting for ~40% of the underlying variance (p = 0.01; η2 = 0.40). Stroke rate and stroke index decreased despite similar stroke length and index of coordination values. Although mean response time, amplitude, maximal oxygen uptake, heart rate, total energy expenditure, metabolic power and energy cost were similar, aerobic contribution decreased by ~1.8% (-2.7 to -0.9%; p < 0.01; d = -1.19) and anaerobic lactic contribution increased by ~1.6% (0.8 to 2.5%; p < 0.01; d = 1.08) over the off-season. Impaired performance was mainly associated with a decreased stroke rate (r = -0.85 to -0.61; p ≤ 0.02), increased peak blood lactate (r = -0.52; p = 0.05) and fewer non-swimming specific physical activities performed during the off-season (r = -0.58; p = 0.03). The end-of-season cessation of training yielded moderate impairments in age-group swimmers performance-related energetic and kinematic factors, however non-specific physical activities can minimise fitness losses.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-9
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Sports Sciences
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 4 Feb 2019

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Biomechanical Phenomena
Age Groups
Stroke
Exercise
Energy Metabolism
Reaction Time
Prescriptions
Lactic Acid
Milk
Heart Rate
Oxygen
Costs and Cost Analysis

Cite this

Zacca, R., Toubekis, A., Freitas, L., Silva, A. F., Azevedo, R., Vilas-Boas, J. P., ... Fernandes, R. J. (2019). Effects of detraining in age-group swimmers performance, energetics and kinematics. Journal of Sports Sciences, 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2019.1572434
Zacca, Rodrigo ; Toubekis, Argyris ; Freitas, Laura ; Silva, Ana Filipa ; Azevedo, Rui ; Vilas-Boas, João Paulo ; Pyne, David B ; Castro, Flávio A De S ; Fernandes, Ricardo J. / Effects of detraining in age-group swimmers performance, energetics and kinematics. In: Journal of Sports Sciences. 2019 ; pp. 1-9.
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Zacca, R, Toubekis, A, Freitas, L, Silva, AF, Azevedo, R, Vilas-Boas, JP, Pyne, DB, Castro, FADS & Fernandes, RJ 2019, 'Effects of detraining in age-group swimmers performance, energetics and kinematics', Journal of Sports Sciences, pp. 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2019.1572434

Effects of detraining in age-group swimmers performance, energetics and kinematics. / Zacca, Rodrigo; Toubekis, Argyris; Freitas, Laura; Silva, Ana Filipa; Azevedo, Rui; Vilas-Boas, João Paulo; Pyne, David B; Castro, Flávio A De S; Fernandes, Ricardo J.

In: Journal of Sports Sciences, 04.02.2019, p. 1-9.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - Effects of detraining in age-group swimmers performance, energetics and kinematics

AU - Zacca, Rodrigo

AU - Toubekis, Argyris

AU - Freitas, Laura

AU - Silva, Ana Filipa

AU - Azevedo, Rui

AU - Vilas-Boas, João Paulo

AU - Pyne, David B

AU - Castro, Flávio A De S

AU - Fernandes, Ricardo J

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AB - Changes in performance, energetics and kinematics during age-group swimmers off-season inform the prescription of training for the following season. Age-group swimmers (n = 15, age 14.3 ± 0.7 years) of equal maturational stage performed a 400-m front crawl (T400) before and after a four-weeks training cessation period. Performance-related energetic and kinematic variables were obtained controlling for anthropometric changes and non-swimming specific physical activities during off-season. T400 time decreased 3.8% (95%CI 1.4 to 6.1%; p < 0.01; d = 0.90) with non-specific physical activities (1814 ± 1989 MET-min·wk-1) accounting for ~40% of the underlying variance (p = 0.01; η2 = 0.40). Stroke rate and stroke index decreased despite similar stroke length and index of coordination values. Although mean response time, amplitude, maximal oxygen uptake, heart rate, total energy expenditure, metabolic power and energy cost were similar, aerobic contribution decreased by ~1.8% (-2.7 to -0.9%; p < 0.01; d = -1.19) and anaerobic lactic contribution increased by ~1.6% (0.8 to 2.5%; p < 0.01; d = 1.08) over the off-season. Impaired performance was mainly associated with a decreased stroke rate (r = -0.85 to -0.61; p ≤ 0.02), increased peak blood lactate (r = -0.52; p = 0.05) and fewer non-swimming specific physical activities performed during the off-season (r = -0.58; p = 0.03). The end-of-season cessation of training yielded moderate impairments in age-group swimmers performance-related energetic and kinematic factors, however non-specific physical activities can minimise fitness losses.

KW - Swimming

KW - age-group

KW - off-season

KW - training cessation

KW - detraining

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DO - 10.1080/02640414.2019.1572434

M3 - Article

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JO - Journal of Sports Science

JF - Journal of Sports Science

SN - 0264-0414

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