Effects of freeze-thaw cycling on metal-phosphate formation and stability in single and multi-metal systems

Erla G. Hafsteinsdóttir, Duanne WHITE, Damian Gore

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

10 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Freezeethaw cycling may influence the chemistry, mineral stability and reaction rate during metal orthophosphate fixation. This study assessed the formation and stability of Cu-, Pb-, and Zn-phosphates in chemically simple laboratory systems during 240 freezeethaw cycles (120 days) from +10 to -20 oC, using X-ray diffractometry. In single heavy metal systems, chloro- and hydroxy-pyromorphite (Pb5(PO4)3(Cl,OH)), sodalite (Na6Zn6(PO4)6.8H2O), chiral zincophosphate (Na12(Zn12P12O48).12H2O), and copper phosphate hydrate (Cu3(PO4)2.3H2O) were the primary phosphate minerals that formed, and were typically stable during the experiment. Zinc and Cu-phosphate formationwas reduced in multi heavy metal systems, and was substantially lower in abundance than chloropyromorphite. Successful Cu-, Pb- and Znphosphate formation can be expected in cold and freezing environments like the polar regions. However, field implementation of orthophosphate fixation needs to consider competing ion effects, concentration of the phosphate source, and the amount of free-water.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)168-177
Number of pages10
JournalEnvironmental Pollution
Volume175
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2013
Externally publishedYes

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Phosphates
Metals
Heavy metals
Phosphate minerals
Heavy Metals
Minerals
Hydrates
Freezing
X ray diffraction analysis
Cold Climate
Reaction rates
Zinc
Copper
Ions
X-Rays
Water
Experiments

Cite this

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title = "Effects of freeze-thaw cycling on metal-phosphate formation and stability in single and multi-metal systems",
abstract = "Freezeethaw cycling may influence the chemistry, mineral stability and reaction rate during metal orthophosphate fixation. This study assessed the formation and stability of Cu-, Pb-, and Zn-phosphates in chemically simple laboratory systems during 240 freezeethaw cycles (120 days) from +10 to -20 oC, using X-ray diffractometry. In single heavy metal systems, chloro- and hydroxy-pyromorphite (Pb5(PO4)3(Cl,OH)), sodalite (Na6Zn6(PO4)6.8H2O), chiral zincophosphate (Na12(Zn12P12O48).12H2O), and copper phosphate hydrate (Cu3(PO4)2.3H2O) were the primary phosphate minerals that formed, and were typically stable during the experiment. Zinc and Cu-phosphate formationwas reduced in multi heavy metal systems, and was substantially lower in abundance than chloropyromorphite. Successful Cu-, Pb- and Znphosphate formation can be expected in cold and freezing environments like the polar regions. However, field implementation of orthophosphate fixation needs to consider competing ion effects, concentration of the phosphate source, and the amount of free-water.",
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Effects of freeze-thaw cycling on metal-phosphate formation and stability in single and multi-metal systems. / Hafsteinsdóttir, Erla G.; WHITE, Duanne; Gore, Damian.

In: Environmental Pollution, Vol. 175, 2013, p. 168-177.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Effects of freeze-thaw cycling on metal-phosphate formation and stability in single and multi-metal systems

AU - Hafsteinsdóttir, Erla G.

AU - WHITE, Duanne

AU - Gore, Damian

PY - 2013

Y1 - 2013

N2 - Freezeethaw cycling may influence the chemistry, mineral stability and reaction rate during metal orthophosphate fixation. This study assessed the formation and stability of Cu-, Pb-, and Zn-phosphates in chemically simple laboratory systems during 240 freezeethaw cycles (120 days) from +10 to -20 oC, using X-ray diffractometry. In single heavy metal systems, chloro- and hydroxy-pyromorphite (Pb5(PO4)3(Cl,OH)), sodalite (Na6Zn6(PO4)6.8H2O), chiral zincophosphate (Na12(Zn12P12O48).12H2O), and copper phosphate hydrate (Cu3(PO4)2.3H2O) were the primary phosphate minerals that formed, and were typically stable during the experiment. Zinc and Cu-phosphate formationwas reduced in multi heavy metal systems, and was substantially lower in abundance than chloropyromorphite. Successful Cu-, Pb- and Znphosphate formation can be expected in cold and freezing environments like the polar regions. However, field implementation of orthophosphate fixation needs to consider competing ion effects, concentration of the phosphate source, and the amount of free-water.

AB - Freezeethaw cycling may influence the chemistry, mineral stability and reaction rate during metal orthophosphate fixation. This study assessed the formation and stability of Cu-, Pb-, and Zn-phosphates in chemically simple laboratory systems during 240 freezeethaw cycles (120 days) from +10 to -20 oC, using X-ray diffractometry. In single heavy metal systems, chloro- and hydroxy-pyromorphite (Pb5(PO4)3(Cl,OH)), sodalite (Na6Zn6(PO4)6.8H2O), chiral zincophosphate (Na12(Zn12P12O48).12H2O), and copper phosphate hydrate (Cu3(PO4)2.3H2O) were the primary phosphate minerals that formed, and were typically stable during the experiment. Zinc and Cu-phosphate formationwas reduced in multi heavy metal systems, and was substantially lower in abundance than chloropyromorphite. Successful Cu-, Pb- and Znphosphate formation can be expected in cold and freezing environments like the polar regions. However, field implementation of orthophosphate fixation needs to consider competing ion effects, concentration of the phosphate source, and the amount of free-water.

KW - Polar regions

KW - Copper

KW - Lead

KW - Zinc

KW - Contamination.

U2 - 10.1016/j.envpol.2013.01.007

DO - 10.1016/j.envpol.2013.01.007

M3 - Article

VL - 175

SP - 168

EP - 177

JO - Environmental Pollution

JF - Environmental Pollution

SN - 0269-7491

ER -