Elevated salivary C-reactive protein predicted by low cardio-respiratory fitness and being overweight in African children

T Naidoo, K Konkol, B Biccard, K Dubose, A J McKune

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

INTRODUCTION: C-reactive protein (CRP) is a sensitive marker of systemic inflammation and is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between salivary CRP, cardio-respiratory fitness and body composition in a paediatric population. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of 170 black South African children (age 9.41 ± 1.55 years, 100 females, 70 males) in grades 3 to 7. Unstimulated whole saliva samples were obtained for the analysis of CRP. Height, mass, skin-fold thickness, resting blood pressure, and waist and hip circumference measurements were obtained. Cardio-respiratory fitness was assessed using a 20-m multi-stage shuttle run. Children were classified as overweight/obese according to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) body mass index (BMI) percentile ranking, and meeting percentage body fat recommendations, if percentage body fat was ≤ 25% in boys and ≤ 32% in girls. The cut-off point for low cardio-respiratory fitness was a predicted aerobic capacity value ≤ the 50th percentile for the group. Contributions of low cardio-respiratory fitness, overweight/obesity, and not meeting percentage body fat recommendations, to elevated salivary CRP (≥ 75th percentile) concentration and secretion rate were examined using binary logistic regression analysis with a backward stepwise selection technique based on likelihood ratios. RESULTS: Poor cardio-respiratory fitness was independently associated with elevated salivary CRP concentration (OR 3.9, 95% CI: 1.7-8.9, p = 0.001). Poor cardio-respiratory fitness (OR 2.7, 95% CI: 1.2-6.1, p = 0.02) and overweight/obesity (BMI ≥ 85th percentile) (OR 2.5, 95% CI: 1.1-5.9, p = 0.03) were independent predictors of elevated salivary CRP secretion rate. CONCLUSION: The results suggest a strong association between poor cardio-respiratory fitness and/or overweight/obesity and inflammatory status in children, based on elevated salivary CRP levels.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)501-506
Number of pages6
JournalCardiovascular Journal of Africa
Volume23
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2012
Externally publishedYes

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Salivary Proteins and Peptides
C-Reactive Protein
Adipose Tissue
Obesity
Body Mass Index
Waist Circumference
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.)
Body Composition
Saliva
Hip
Cardiovascular Diseases
Cross-Sectional Studies
Logistic Models
Regression Analysis
Pediatrics
Blood Pressure
Inflammation
Skin

Cite this

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title = "Elevated salivary C-reactive protein predicted by low cardio-respiratory fitness and being overweight in African children",
abstract = "INTRODUCTION: C-reactive protein (CRP) is a sensitive marker of systemic inflammation and is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between salivary CRP, cardio-respiratory fitness and body composition in a paediatric population. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of 170 black South African children (age 9.41 ± 1.55 years, 100 females, 70 males) in grades 3 to 7. Unstimulated whole saliva samples were obtained for the analysis of CRP. Height, mass, skin-fold thickness, resting blood pressure, and waist and hip circumference measurements were obtained. Cardio-respiratory fitness was assessed using a 20-m multi-stage shuttle run. Children were classified as overweight/obese according to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) body mass index (BMI) percentile ranking, and meeting percentage body fat recommendations, if percentage body fat was ≤ 25{\%} in boys and ≤ 32{\%} in girls. The cut-off point for low cardio-respiratory fitness was a predicted aerobic capacity value ≤ the 50th percentile for the group. Contributions of low cardio-respiratory fitness, overweight/obesity, and not meeting percentage body fat recommendations, to elevated salivary CRP (≥ 75th percentile) concentration and secretion rate were examined using binary logistic regression analysis with a backward stepwise selection technique based on likelihood ratios. RESULTS: Poor cardio-respiratory fitness was independently associated with elevated salivary CRP concentration (OR 3.9, 95{\%} CI: 1.7-8.9, p = 0.001). Poor cardio-respiratory fitness (OR 2.7, 95{\%} CI: 1.2-6.1, p = 0.02) and overweight/obesity (BMI ≥ 85th percentile) (OR 2.5, 95{\%} CI: 1.1-5.9, p = 0.03) were independent predictors of elevated salivary CRP secretion rate. CONCLUSION: The results suggest a strong association between poor cardio-respiratory fitness and/or overweight/obesity and inflammatory status in children, based on elevated salivary CRP levels.",
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Elevated salivary C-reactive protein predicted by low cardio-respiratory fitness and being overweight in African children. / Naidoo, T; Konkol, K; Biccard, B; Dubose, K; McKune, A J.

In: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa, Vol. 23, No. 9, 10.2012, p. 501-506.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Elevated salivary C-reactive protein predicted by low cardio-respiratory fitness and being overweight in African children

AU - Naidoo, T

AU - Konkol, K

AU - Biccard, B

AU - Dubose, K

AU - McKune, A J

PY - 2012/10

Y1 - 2012/10

N2 - INTRODUCTION: C-reactive protein (CRP) is a sensitive marker of systemic inflammation and is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between salivary CRP, cardio-respiratory fitness and body composition in a paediatric population. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of 170 black South African children (age 9.41 ± 1.55 years, 100 females, 70 males) in grades 3 to 7. Unstimulated whole saliva samples were obtained for the analysis of CRP. Height, mass, skin-fold thickness, resting blood pressure, and waist and hip circumference measurements were obtained. Cardio-respiratory fitness was assessed using a 20-m multi-stage shuttle run. Children were classified as overweight/obese according to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) body mass index (BMI) percentile ranking, and meeting percentage body fat recommendations, if percentage body fat was ≤ 25% in boys and ≤ 32% in girls. The cut-off point for low cardio-respiratory fitness was a predicted aerobic capacity value ≤ the 50th percentile for the group. Contributions of low cardio-respiratory fitness, overweight/obesity, and not meeting percentage body fat recommendations, to elevated salivary CRP (≥ 75th percentile) concentration and secretion rate were examined using binary logistic regression analysis with a backward stepwise selection technique based on likelihood ratios. RESULTS: Poor cardio-respiratory fitness was independently associated with elevated salivary CRP concentration (OR 3.9, 95% CI: 1.7-8.9, p = 0.001). Poor cardio-respiratory fitness (OR 2.7, 95% CI: 1.2-6.1, p = 0.02) and overweight/obesity (BMI ≥ 85th percentile) (OR 2.5, 95% CI: 1.1-5.9, p = 0.03) were independent predictors of elevated salivary CRP secretion rate. CONCLUSION: The results suggest a strong association between poor cardio-respiratory fitness and/or overweight/obesity and inflammatory status in children, based on elevated salivary CRP levels.

AB - INTRODUCTION: C-reactive protein (CRP) is a sensitive marker of systemic inflammation and is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between salivary CRP, cardio-respiratory fitness and body composition in a paediatric population. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of 170 black South African children (age 9.41 ± 1.55 years, 100 females, 70 males) in grades 3 to 7. Unstimulated whole saliva samples were obtained for the analysis of CRP. Height, mass, skin-fold thickness, resting blood pressure, and waist and hip circumference measurements were obtained. Cardio-respiratory fitness was assessed using a 20-m multi-stage shuttle run. Children were classified as overweight/obese according to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) body mass index (BMI) percentile ranking, and meeting percentage body fat recommendations, if percentage body fat was ≤ 25% in boys and ≤ 32% in girls. The cut-off point for low cardio-respiratory fitness was a predicted aerobic capacity value ≤ the 50th percentile for the group. Contributions of low cardio-respiratory fitness, overweight/obesity, and not meeting percentage body fat recommendations, to elevated salivary CRP (≥ 75th percentile) concentration and secretion rate were examined using binary logistic regression analysis with a backward stepwise selection technique based on likelihood ratios. RESULTS: Poor cardio-respiratory fitness was independently associated with elevated salivary CRP concentration (OR 3.9, 95% CI: 1.7-8.9, p = 0.001). Poor cardio-respiratory fitness (OR 2.7, 95% CI: 1.2-6.1, p = 0.02) and overweight/obesity (BMI ≥ 85th percentile) (OR 2.5, 95% CI: 1.1-5.9, p = 0.03) were independent predictors of elevated salivary CRP secretion rate. CONCLUSION: The results suggest a strong association between poor cardio-respiratory fitness and/or overweight/obesity and inflammatory status in children, based on elevated salivary CRP levels.

KW - Biomarkers

KW - Body Mass Index

KW - Body Weight

KW - C-Reactive Protein

KW - Cardiovascular Diseases

KW - Child

KW - Cross-Sectional Studies

KW - Female

KW - Humans

KW - Male

KW - Overweight

KW - Physical Fitness

KW - Predictive Value of Tests

KW - Saliva

KW - South Africa

KW - Journal Article

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DO - 10.5830/CVJA-2012-058

M3 - Article

VL - 23

SP - 501

EP - 506

JO - Cardiovascular Journal of Africa

JF - Cardiovascular Journal of Africa

SN - 0256-9574

IS - 9

ER -