Epstein-Barr virus reactivation and upper respiratory illness in elite swimmers

Maree Gleeson, David B Pyne, Jason P Austin, J Lynn Francis, Robert L Clancy, Warren A McDonald, Peter A. Fricker

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    Abstract

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between latent viral shedding of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in saliva, upper-respiratory illness, and mucosal immune suppression in a cohort of highly trained swimmers undertaking intensive training. Methods: Saliva was collected before selected training sessions from 14 elite male swimmers during a 30-d period of intensive training. Prior infection with EBV was determined by EBV antibody serology. Salivary IgA concentrations were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and EBV viral shedding (EBV-DNA) was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Symptoms of upper-respiratory illness were recorded daily.
    Results: Eleven swimmers (79%) were seropositive for prior EBV infection. Seven EBV seropositive swimmers (64%) had EBV-DNA detected during the study period. Upper-respiratory symptoms (URS) were reported in six of seven swimmers in whom EBV-DNA was detected and in three of four swimmers with no EBV-DNA detection. No URS were reported in the EBV seronegative swimmers. There was a statistically significant relationship between EBV serology status and URS (P = 0.027). EBV-DNA was detected in saliva before the appearance of URS. Salivary IgA levels were significantly lower immediately before the URS (P = 0.01) compared with subsequent peak IgA levels and declined to pre-URS levels on average 11 d after the first appearance of URS. Conclusions: The time course of appearance of EBV-DNA in relation to URS suggests latent viral EBV shedding may be a contributing factor in the URS. The low levels of salivary IgA detected before the URS indicated transient mucosal immune suppression in the study cohort. The viral shedding may alternatively be a reflection of the altered immune control mechanisms that occur in response to intensive exercise and unrelated to the URS
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)411-417
    Number of pages7
    JournalMedicine Science in Sports Exercise
    Volume34
    Issue number3
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - Mar 2002

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    Human Herpesvirus 4
    Virus Shedding
    Immunoglobulin A
    DNA
    Saliva
    Epstein-Barr Virus Infections
    Serology
    Cohort Studies
    Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay

    Cite this

    Gleeson, M., Pyne, D. B., Austin, J. P., Lynn Francis, J., Clancy, R. L., McDonald, W. A., & Fricker, P. A. (2002). Epstein-Barr virus reactivation and upper respiratory illness in elite swimmers. Medicine Science in Sports Exercise, 34(3), 411-417. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005768-200203000-00005
    Gleeson, Maree ; Pyne, David B ; Austin, Jason P ; Lynn Francis, J ; Clancy, Robert L ; McDonald, Warren A ; Fricker, Peter A. / Epstein-Barr virus reactivation and upper respiratory illness in elite swimmers. In: Medicine Science in Sports Exercise. 2002 ; Vol. 34, No. 3. pp. 411-417.
    @article{73f80e7d46514ec7bbfbdff4304d198a,
    title = "Epstein-Barr virus reactivation and upper respiratory illness in elite swimmers",
    abstract = "Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between latent viral shedding of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in saliva, upper-respiratory illness, and mucosal immune suppression in a cohort of highly trained swimmers undertaking intensive training. Methods: Saliva was collected before selected training sessions from 14 elite male swimmers during a 30-d period of intensive training. Prior infection with EBV was determined by EBV antibody serology. Salivary IgA concentrations were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and EBV viral shedding (EBV-DNA) was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Symptoms of upper-respiratory illness were recorded daily.Results: Eleven swimmers (79{\%}) were seropositive for prior EBV infection. Seven EBV seropositive swimmers (64{\%}) had EBV-DNA detected during the study period. Upper-respiratory symptoms (URS) were reported in six of seven swimmers in whom EBV-DNA was detected and in three of four swimmers with no EBV-DNA detection. No URS were reported in the EBV seronegative swimmers. There was a statistically significant relationship between EBV serology status and URS (P = 0.027). EBV-DNA was detected in saliva before the appearance of URS. Salivary IgA levels were significantly lower immediately before the URS (P = 0.01) compared with subsequent peak IgA levels and declined to pre-URS levels on average 11 d after the first appearance of URS. Conclusions: The time course of appearance of EBV-DNA in relation to URS suggests latent viral EBV shedding may be a contributing factor in the URS. The low levels of salivary IgA detected before the URS indicated transient mucosal immune suppression in the study cohort. The viral shedding may alternatively be a reflection of the altered immune control mechanisms that occur in response to intensive exercise and unrelated to the URS",
    keywords = "Adolescent, Adult, DNA, Viral, Herpesvirus 4, Human, Humans, Immunity, Mucosal, Immunoglobulin A, Respiratory Tract Infections, Saliva, Swimming, Virus Activation, Virus Shedding, Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't",
    author = "Maree Gleeson and Pyne, {David B} and Austin, {Jason P} and {Lynn Francis}, J and Clancy, {Robert L} and McDonald, {Warren A} and Fricker, {Peter A.}",
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    Gleeson, M, Pyne, DB, Austin, JP, Lynn Francis, J, Clancy, RL, McDonald, WA & Fricker, PA 2002, 'Epstein-Barr virus reactivation and upper respiratory illness in elite swimmers', Medicine Science in Sports Exercise, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 411-417. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005768-200203000-00005

    Epstein-Barr virus reactivation and upper respiratory illness in elite swimmers. / Gleeson, Maree; Pyne, David B; Austin, Jason P; Lynn Francis, J; Clancy, Robert L; McDonald, Warren A; Fricker, Peter A.

    In: Medicine Science in Sports Exercise, Vol. 34, No. 3, 03.2002, p. 411-417.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Epstein-Barr virus reactivation and upper respiratory illness in elite swimmers

    AU - Gleeson, Maree

    AU - Pyne, David B

    AU - Austin, Jason P

    AU - Lynn Francis, J

    AU - Clancy, Robert L

    AU - McDonald, Warren A

    AU - Fricker, Peter A.

    PY - 2002/3

    Y1 - 2002/3

    N2 - Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between latent viral shedding of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in saliva, upper-respiratory illness, and mucosal immune suppression in a cohort of highly trained swimmers undertaking intensive training. Methods: Saliva was collected before selected training sessions from 14 elite male swimmers during a 30-d period of intensive training. Prior infection with EBV was determined by EBV antibody serology. Salivary IgA concentrations were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and EBV viral shedding (EBV-DNA) was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Symptoms of upper-respiratory illness were recorded daily.Results: Eleven swimmers (79%) were seropositive for prior EBV infection. Seven EBV seropositive swimmers (64%) had EBV-DNA detected during the study period. Upper-respiratory symptoms (URS) were reported in six of seven swimmers in whom EBV-DNA was detected and in three of four swimmers with no EBV-DNA detection. No URS were reported in the EBV seronegative swimmers. There was a statistically significant relationship between EBV serology status and URS (P = 0.027). EBV-DNA was detected in saliva before the appearance of URS. Salivary IgA levels were significantly lower immediately before the URS (P = 0.01) compared with subsequent peak IgA levels and declined to pre-URS levels on average 11 d after the first appearance of URS. Conclusions: The time course of appearance of EBV-DNA in relation to URS suggests latent viral EBV shedding may be a contributing factor in the URS. The low levels of salivary IgA detected before the URS indicated transient mucosal immune suppression in the study cohort. The viral shedding may alternatively be a reflection of the altered immune control mechanisms that occur in response to intensive exercise and unrelated to the URS

    AB - Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between latent viral shedding of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in saliva, upper-respiratory illness, and mucosal immune suppression in a cohort of highly trained swimmers undertaking intensive training. Methods: Saliva was collected before selected training sessions from 14 elite male swimmers during a 30-d period of intensive training. Prior infection with EBV was determined by EBV antibody serology. Salivary IgA concentrations were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and EBV viral shedding (EBV-DNA) was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Symptoms of upper-respiratory illness were recorded daily.Results: Eleven swimmers (79%) were seropositive for prior EBV infection. Seven EBV seropositive swimmers (64%) had EBV-DNA detected during the study period. Upper-respiratory symptoms (URS) were reported in six of seven swimmers in whom EBV-DNA was detected and in three of four swimmers with no EBV-DNA detection. No URS were reported in the EBV seronegative swimmers. There was a statistically significant relationship between EBV serology status and URS (P = 0.027). EBV-DNA was detected in saliva before the appearance of URS. Salivary IgA levels were significantly lower immediately before the URS (P = 0.01) compared with subsequent peak IgA levels and declined to pre-URS levels on average 11 d after the first appearance of URS. Conclusions: The time course of appearance of EBV-DNA in relation to URS suggests latent viral EBV shedding may be a contributing factor in the URS. The low levels of salivary IgA detected before the URS indicated transient mucosal immune suppression in the study cohort. The viral shedding may alternatively be a reflection of the altered immune control mechanisms that occur in response to intensive exercise and unrelated to the URS

    KW - Adolescent

    KW - Adult

    KW - DNA, Viral

    KW - Herpesvirus 4, Human

    KW - Humans

    KW - Immunity, Mucosal

    KW - Immunoglobulin A

    KW - Respiratory Tract Infections

    KW - Saliva

    KW - Swimming

    KW - Virus Activation

    KW - Virus Shedding

    KW - Journal Article

    KW - Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

    U2 - 10.1097/00005768-200203000-00005

    DO - 10.1097/00005768-200203000-00005

    M3 - Article

    VL - 34

    SP - 411

    EP - 417

    JO - Medicine Science in Sports Exercise

    JF - Medicine Science in Sports Exercise

    SN - 0195-9131

    IS - 3

    ER -