While chronic hepatitis B remains a global public health problem, the detailed spatiotemporal dynamics of the key molecular events leading to the multiplication and egress of hepatitis B virus (HBV) are still largely unclear. Previously, we developed a chromogenic in situ hybridization assay for detection of HBV RNA, DNA and covalently closed circular DNA in clinical liver biopsies. Here, we report the establishment of a fluorescent in situ hybridization method for the visualization of HBV RNA, HBV core particle DNA and intranuclear DNA in a tetracycline-inducible HBV replication system (HepAD38) and a de novo infection system (HepG2-NTCP). Using 3D-STORM (three-dimensional stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy), we were able to obtain images of HBV RNA and DNA with improved spatial resolution allowing in-depth analyses of key virological events within complex subcellular compartments. Taken together, these techniques should facilitate a deeper understanding of the molecular events of the HBV life cycle and shed new light on the intricate mechanisms of virus-host interactions.