Exploring the performance reserve

Effect of different magnitudes of power output deception on 4,000 m cycling time-trial performance

Mark Stone, Kevin Thomas, Michael Wilkinson, Emma Stevenson, Alan St Clair Gibson, Andrew Jones, Kevin THOMPSON

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    4 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was to investigate whether a magnitude of deception of 5% in power output would lead to a greater reduction in the amount of time taken for participants to complete a 4000 m cycling TT than a magnitude of deception of 2% in power output, which we have previously shown can lead to a small change in 4000 m cycling TT performance. Methods: Ten trained male cyclists completed four, 4000 m cycling TTs. The first served as a habituation and the second as a baseline for future trials. During trials three and four participants raced against a pacer which was set, in a randomized order, at a mean power output equal to 2% (+2% TT) or 5% (+5% TT) higher than their baseline performance. However participants were misled into believing that the power output of the pacer was an accurate representation of their baseline performance on both occasions. Cardiorespiratory responses were recorded throughout each TT, and used to estimate energy contribution from aerobic and anaerobic metabolism. Results: Participants were able to finish the +2% TT in a significantly shorter duration than at baseline (p = 0.01), with the difference in performance likely attributable to a greater anaerobic contribution to total power output (p = 0.06). There was no difference in performance between the +5% TT and +2% TT or baseline trials. Conclusions: Results suggest that a performance reserve is conserved, involving anaerobic energy contribution, which can be utilised given a belief that the exercise will be sustainable however there is an upper limit to how much deception can be tolerated. These findings have implications for performance enhancement in athletes and for our understanding of the nature of fatigue during high-intensity exercise.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1-13
    Number of pages13
    JournalPLoS One
    Volume12
    Issue number3
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 9 Mar 2017

    Fingerprint

    Deception
    Metabolism
    exercise
    Fatigue of materials
    athletes
    anaerobiosis
    energy
    Exercise
    Anaerobiosis
    Athletes
    Fatigue
    duration
    methodology

    Cite this

    Stone, Mark ; Thomas, Kevin ; Wilkinson, Michael ; Stevenson, Emma ; Gibson, Alan St Clair ; Jones, Andrew ; THOMPSON, Kevin. / Exploring the performance reserve : Effect of different magnitudes of power output deception on 4,000 m cycling time-trial performance. In: PLoS One. 2017 ; Vol. 12, No. 3. pp. 1-13.
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    title = "Exploring the performance reserve: Effect of different magnitudes of power output deception on 4,000 m cycling time-trial performance",
    abstract = "Purpose: The aim of the present study was to investigate whether a magnitude of deception of 5{\%} in power output would lead to a greater reduction in the amount of time taken for participants to complete a 4000 m cycling TT than a magnitude of deception of 2{\%} in power output, which we have previously shown can lead to a small change in 4000 m cycling TT performance. Methods: Ten trained male cyclists completed four, 4000 m cycling TTs. The first served as a habituation and the second as a baseline for future trials. During trials three and four participants raced against a pacer which was set, in a randomized order, at a mean power output equal to 2{\%} (+2{\%} TT) or 5{\%} (+5{\%} TT) higher than their baseline performance. However participants were misled into believing that the power output of the pacer was an accurate representation of their baseline performance on both occasions. Cardiorespiratory responses were recorded throughout each TT, and used to estimate energy contribution from aerobic and anaerobic metabolism. Results: Participants were able to finish the +2{\%} TT in a significantly shorter duration than at baseline (p = 0.01), with the difference in performance likely attributable to a greater anaerobic contribution to total power output (p = 0.06). There was no difference in performance between the +5{\%} TT and +2{\%} TT or baseline trials. Conclusions: Results suggest that a performance reserve is conserved, involving anaerobic energy contribution, which can be utilised given a belief that the exercise will be sustainable however there is an upper limit to how much deception can be tolerated. These findings have implications for performance enhancement in athletes and for our understanding of the nature of fatigue during high-intensity exercise.",
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    Exploring the performance reserve : Effect of different magnitudes of power output deception on 4,000 m cycling time-trial performance. / Stone, Mark; Thomas, Kevin; Wilkinson, Michael; Stevenson, Emma; Gibson, Alan St Clair; Jones, Andrew; THOMPSON, Kevin.

    In: PLoS One, Vol. 12, No. 3, 09.03.2017, p. 1-13.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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    T1 - Exploring the performance reserve

    T2 - Effect of different magnitudes of power output deception on 4,000 m cycling time-trial performance

    AU - Stone, Mark

    AU - Thomas, Kevin

    AU - Wilkinson, Michael

    AU - Stevenson, Emma

    AU - Gibson, Alan St Clair

    AU - Jones, Andrew

    AU - THOMPSON, Kevin

    PY - 2017/3/9

    Y1 - 2017/3/9

    N2 - Purpose: The aim of the present study was to investigate whether a magnitude of deception of 5% in power output would lead to a greater reduction in the amount of time taken for participants to complete a 4000 m cycling TT than a magnitude of deception of 2% in power output, which we have previously shown can lead to a small change in 4000 m cycling TT performance. Methods: Ten trained male cyclists completed four, 4000 m cycling TTs. The first served as a habituation and the second as a baseline for future trials. During trials three and four participants raced against a pacer which was set, in a randomized order, at a mean power output equal to 2% (+2% TT) or 5% (+5% TT) higher than their baseline performance. However participants were misled into believing that the power output of the pacer was an accurate representation of their baseline performance on both occasions. Cardiorespiratory responses were recorded throughout each TT, and used to estimate energy contribution from aerobic and anaerobic metabolism. Results: Participants were able to finish the +2% TT in a significantly shorter duration than at baseline (p = 0.01), with the difference in performance likely attributable to a greater anaerobic contribution to total power output (p = 0.06). There was no difference in performance between the +5% TT and +2% TT or baseline trials. Conclusions: Results suggest that a performance reserve is conserved, involving anaerobic energy contribution, which can be utilised given a belief that the exercise will be sustainable however there is an upper limit to how much deception can be tolerated. These findings have implications for performance enhancement in athletes and for our understanding of the nature of fatigue during high-intensity exercise.

    AB - Purpose: The aim of the present study was to investigate whether a magnitude of deception of 5% in power output would lead to a greater reduction in the amount of time taken for participants to complete a 4000 m cycling TT than a magnitude of deception of 2% in power output, which we have previously shown can lead to a small change in 4000 m cycling TT performance. Methods: Ten trained male cyclists completed four, 4000 m cycling TTs. The first served as a habituation and the second as a baseline for future trials. During trials three and four participants raced against a pacer which was set, in a randomized order, at a mean power output equal to 2% (+2% TT) or 5% (+5% TT) higher than their baseline performance. However participants were misled into believing that the power output of the pacer was an accurate representation of their baseline performance on both occasions. Cardiorespiratory responses were recorded throughout each TT, and used to estimate energy contribution from aerobic and anaerobic metabolism. Results: Participants were able to finish the +2% TT in a significantly shorter duration than at baseline (p = 0.01), with the difference in performance likely attributable to a greater anaerobic contribution to total power output (p = 0.06). There was no difference in performance between the +5% TT and +2% TT or baseline trials. Conclusions: Results suggest that a performance reserve is conserved, involving anaerobic energy contribution, which can be utilised given a belief that the exercise will be sustainable however there is an upper limit to how much deception can be tolerated. These findings have implications for performance enhancement in athletes and for our understanding of the nature of fatigue during high-intensity exercise.

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