Extreme air pollution events from bushfires and dust storms and their association with mortality in Sydney, Australia 1994-2007

Fay Johnston, Ivan Hanigan, Sarah Henderson, Geoffrey Morgan, David Bowman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Introduction

Extreme air pollution events due to bushfire smoke and dust storms are expected to increase as a consequence of climate change, yet little has been published about their population health impacts. We examined the association between air pollution events and mortality in Sydney from 1997 to 2004.

Methods

Events were defined as days for which the 24 h city-wide concentration of PM10 exceeded the 99th percentile. All events were researched and categorised as being caused by either smoke or dust. We used a time-stratified case-crossover design with conditional logistic regression modelling adjusted for influenza epidemics, same day and lagged temperature and humidity. Reported odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals are for mortality on event days compared with non-event days. The contribution of elevated average temperatures to mortality during smoke events was explored.

Results

There were 52 event days, 48 attributable to bushfire smoke, six to dust and two affected by both. Smoke events were associated with a 5% increase in non-accidental mortality at a lag of 1 day OR (95% confidence interval (CI)) 1.05 (95%CI: 1.00–1.10). When same day temperature was removed from the model, additional same day associations were observed with non-accidental mortality OR 1.05 (95%CI: 1.00–1.09), and with cardiovascular mortality OR (95%CI) 1.10 (95%CI: 1.00–1.20). Dust events were associated with a 15% increase in non-accidental mortality at a lag of 3 days, OR (95%CI) 1.16 (95%CI: 1.03–1.30).

Conclusions

The magnitude and temporal patterns of association with mortality were different for smoke and dust events. Public health advisories during bushfire smoke pollution episodes should include advice about hot weather in addition to air pollution.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)811-816
Number of pages6
JournalEnvironmental Research
Volume111
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2011
Externally publishedYes

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dust storm
Air Pollution
Dust
Air pollution
Smoke
confidence interval
smoke
atmospheric pollution
Confidence Intervals
mortality
Mortality
Odds Ratio
dust
Temperature
Public health
influenza
Climate Change
temperature
Climate change
health impact

Cite this

Johnston, Fay ; Hanigan, Ivan ; Henderson, Sarah ; Morgan, Geoffrey ; Bowman, David. / Extreme air pollution events from bushfires and dust storms and their association with mortality in Sydney, Australia 1994-2007. In: Environmental Research. 2011 ; Vol. 111, No. 6. pp. 811-816.
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abstract = "IntroductionExtreme air pollution events due to bushfire smoke and dust storms are expected to increase as a consequence of climate change, yet little has been published about their population health impacts. We examined the association between air pollution events and mortality in Sydney from 1997 to 2004.MethodsEvents were defined as days for which the 24 h city-wide concentration of PM10 exceeded the 99th percentile. All events were researched and categorised as being caused by either smoke or dust. We used a time-stratified case-crossover design with conditional logistic regression modelling adjusted for influenza epidemics, same day and lagged temperature and humidity. Reported odds ratios (OR) and 95{\%} confidence intervals are for mortality on event days compared with non-event days. The contribution of elevated average temperatures to mortality during smoke events was explored.ResultsThere were 52 event days, 48 attributable to bushfire smoke, six to dust and two affected by both. Smoke events were associated with a 5{\%} increase in non-accidental mortality at a lag of 1 day OR (95{\%} confidence interval (CI)) 1.05 (95{\%}CI: 1.00–1.10). When same day temperature was removed from the model, additional same day associations were observed with non-accidental mortality OR 1.05 (95{\%}CI: 1.00–1.09), and with cardiovascular mortality OR (95{\%}CI) 1.10 (95{\%}CI: 1.00–1.20). Dust events were associated with a 15{\%} increase in non-accidental mortality at a lag of 3 days, OR (95{\%}CI) 1.16 (95{\%}CI: 1.03–1.30).ConclusionsThe magnitude and temporal patterns of association with mortality were different for smoke and dust events. Public health advisories during bushfire smoke pollution episodes should include advice about hot weather in addition to air pollution.",
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Extreme air pollution events from bushfires and dust storms and their association with mortality in Sydney, Australia 1994-2007. / Johnston, Fay; Hanigan, Ivan; Henderson, Sarah; Morgan, Geoffrey; Bowman, David.

In: Environmental Research, Vol. 111, No. 6, 2011, p. 811-816.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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N2 - IntroductionExtreme air pollution events due to bushfire smoke and dust storms are expected to increase as a consequence of climate change, yet little has been published about their population health impacts. We examined the association between air pollution events and mortality in Sydney from 1997 to 2004.MethodsEvents were defined as days for which the 24 h city-wide concentration of PM10 exceeded the 99th percentile. All events were researched and categorised as being caused by either smoke or dust. We used a time-stratified case-crossover design with conditional logistic regression modelling adjusted for influenza epidemics, same day and lagged temperature and humidity. Reported odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals are for mortality on event days compared with non-event days. The contribution of elevated average temperatures to mortality during smoke events was explored.ResultsThere were 52 event days, 48 attributable to bushfire smoke, six to dust and two affected by both. Smoke events were associated with a 5% increase in non-accidental mortality at a lag of 1 day OR (95% confidence interval (CI)) 1.05 (95%CI: 1.00–1.10). When same day temperature was removed from the model, additional same day associations were observed with non-accidental mortality OR 1.05 (95%CI: 1.00–1.09), and with cardiovascular mortality OR (95%CI) 1.10 (95%CI: 1.00–1.20). Dust events were associated with a 15% increase in non-accidental mortality at a lag of 3 days, OR (95%CI) 1.16 (95%CI: 1.03–1.30).ConclusionsThe magnitude and temporal patterns of association with mortality were different for smoke and dust events. Public health advisories during bushfire smoke pollution episodes should include advice about hot weather in addition to air pollution.

AB - IntroductionExtreme air pollution events due to bushfire smoke and dust storms are expected to increase as a consequence of climate change, yet little has been published about their population health impacts. We examined the association between air pollution events and mortality in Sydney from 1997 to 2004.MethodsEvents were defined as days for which the 24 h city-wide concentration of PM10 exceeded the 99th percentile. All events were researched and categorised as being caused by either smoke or dust. We used a time-stratified case-crossover design with conditional logistic regression modelling adjusted for influenza epidemics, same day and lagged temperature and humidity. Reported odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals are for mortality on event days compared with non-event days. The contribution of elevated average temperatures to mortality during smoke events was explored.ResultsThere were 52 event days, 48 attributable to bushfire smoke, six to dust and two affected by both. Smoke events were associated with a 5% increase in non-accidental mortality at a lag of 1 day OR (95% confidence interval (CI)) 1.05 (95%CI: 1.00–1.10). When same day temperature was removed from the model, additional same day associations were observed with non-accidental mortality OR 1.05 (95%CI: 1.00–1.09), and with cardiovascular mortality OR (95%CI) 1.10 (95%CI: 1.00–1.20). Dust events were associated with a 15% increase in non-accidental mortality at a lag of 3 days, OR (95%CI) 1.16 (95%CI: 1.03–1.30).ConclusionsThe magnitude and temporal patterns of association with mortality were different for smoke and dust events. Public health advisories during bushfire smoke pollution episodes should include advice about hot weather in addition to air pollution.

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JF - Environmental Research

SN - 0013-9351

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