Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence of injuries among young combat soldiers as assessed and reported by the military physicians, and to investigate whether parameters such as anthropometric measures, postural balance, proprioceptive ability, and chronic ankle instability are related to injuries during and following an infantry commanders course. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 165 soldiers were tested for anthropometric measurements, proprioceptive ability, and dynamic postural balance (DPB), as well as for their responses to an ankle stability questionnaire (CAIT), on three occasions: pre-course, middle-course, and end-course testing. All musculoskeletal injuries were assessed and recorded in the digital medical file of each participant by specialist military physicians before and during/following the course. Results: Ninety-eight soldiers (59.4%) were injured before the course. Forty soldiers (24.2%) incurred an injury during/following the course (with 33 out of the 40 [82.5%] soldiers that were injured during/following the course having also been injured before the course). Sixty soldiers had no injury before/during/following the course. A survival curve showed that half of the soldiers who were injured during/following the course (20 soldiers) were recorded as injured in the first half of the course (during the first 46 days of the 92-day course). Logistic regression showed that the pre-course parameters that were significant among injured soldiers compared with the non-injured soldiers were: low CAIT results (OR = 2.736, 95% CI = 1.178–6.354), high BMI (OR = 1.234, 95% CI = 1.082–1.406) and reduced proprioceptive ability (OR =.858, 95% CI =.797-.924). Conclusion: With a high prevalence of soldiers injured during and following a commanders course, a somatosensory intervention program should be generalized into the practical daily preparation and training routines of the soldiers for improving somatosensory abilities, optimizing military physical readiness, and for preventing future musculoskeletal injuries.