Full course macro-kinematic analysis of a 10 km classical cross-country skiing competition

Finn Marsland, Colin Mackintosh, Hans Christer Holmberg, Judith Anson, Gordon Waddington, Keith Lyons, Dale Chapman

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    Abstract

    In this study micro-sensors were employed to analyse macro-kinematic parameters during a classical cross-country skiing competition (10 km, 2-lap). Data were collected from eight male participants during the Australian championship competition wearing a single micro-sensor unit (MinimaxX™, S4) positioned on their upper back. Algorithms and visual classification were used to identify skiing sub-techniques and calculate velocities, cycle lengths (CL) and cycle rates (CR) over the entire course. Double poling (DP) was the predominant cyclical sub-technique utilised (43 ± 5% of total distance), followed by diagonal stride (DS, 16 ± 4%) and kick double poling (KDP, 5 ± 4%), with the non-propulsive Tuck technique accounting for 24 ± 4% of the course. Large within-athlete variances in CL and CR occurred, particularly for DS (CV% = 25 ± 2% and CV% = 15 ± 2%, respectively). For all sub-techniques the mean CR on both laps and for the slower and faster skiers were similar, while there was a trend for the mean velocities in all sub-techniques by the faster athletes to be higher. Overall velocity and mean DP-CL were significantly higher on Lap 1, with no significant change in KDP-CL or DS-CL between laps. Distinct individual velocity thresholds for transitions between sub-techniques were observed. Clearly, valuable insights into crosscountry skiing performance can be gained through continuous macro-kinematic monitoring during competition.

    Original languageEnglish
    Article numbere0182262
    Pages (from-to)1-15
    Number of pages15
    JournalPLoS One
    Volume12
    Issue number8
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2017

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    skiing
    Skiing
    kinematics
    Biomechanical Phenomena
    Macros
    Kinematics
    Athletes
    athletes
    Sensors
    methodology
    back (body region)
    Monitoring
    monitoring

    Cite this

    Marsland, F., Mackintosh, C., Holmberg, H. C., Anson, J., Waddington, G., Lyons, K., & Chapman, D. (2017). Full course macro-kinematic analysis of a 10 km classical cross-country skiing competition. PLoS One, 12(8), 1-15. [e0182262]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0182262
    Marsland, Finn ; Mackintosh, Colin ; Holmberg, Hans Christer ; Anson, Judith ; Waddington, Gordon ; Lyons, Keith ; Chapman, Dale. / Full course macro-kinematic analysis of a 10 km classical cross-country skiing competition. In: PLoS One. 2017 ; Vol. 12, No. 8. pp. 1-15.
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    abstract = "In this study micro-sensors were employed to analyse macro-kinematic parameters during a classical cross-country skiing competition (10 km, 2-lap). Data were collected from eight male participants during the Australian championship competition wearing a single micro-sensor unit (MinimaxX™, S4) positioned on their upper back. Algorithms and visual classification were used to identify skiing sub-techniques and calculate velocities, cycle lengths (CL) and cycle rates (CR) over the entire course. Double poling (DP) was the predominant cyclical sub-technique utilised (43 ± 5{\%} of total distance), followed by diagonal stride (DS, 16 ± 4{\%}) and kick double poling (KDP, 5 ± 4{\%}), with the non-propulsive Tuck technique accounting for 24 ± 4{\%} of the course. Large within-athlete variances in CL and CR occurred, particularly for DS (CV{\%} = 25 ± 2{\%} and CV{\%} = 15 ± 2{\%}, respectively). For all sub-techniques the mean CR on both laps and for the slower and faster skiers were similar, while there was a trend for the mean velocities in all sub-techniques by the faster athletes to be higher. Overall velocity and mean DP-CL were significantly higher on Lap 1, with no significant change in KDP-CL or DS-CL between laps. Distinct individual velocity thresholds for transitions between sub-techniques were observed. Clearly, valuable insights into crosscountry skiing performance can be gained through continuous macro-kinematic monitoring during competition.",
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    Marsland, F, Mackintosh, C, Holmberg, HC, Anson, J, Waddington, G, Lyons, K & Chapman, D 2017, 'Full course macro-kinematic analysis of a 10 km classical cross-country skiing competition', PLoS One, vol. 12, no. 8, e0182262, pp. 1-15. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0182262

    Full course macro-kinematic analysis of a 10 km classical cross-country skiing competition. / Marsland, Finn; Mackintosh, Colin; Holmberg, Hans Christer; Anson, Judith; Waddington, Gordon; Lyons, Keith; Chapman, Dale.

    In: PLoS One, Vol. 12, No. 8, e0182262, 01.08.2017, p. 1-15.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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