Gaseous nitrogen losses from plants

Graham Farquhar, Rob Wetselaar, B Weir

Research output: A Conference proceeding or a Chapter in BookChapter

Abstract

The identification, measurement and understanding of the different loss pathways of N from the plant-soil system are prerequisites in efforts to increase the efficiency of N added to the system through biological and industrial fixation. Of the many pathways of loss, those from plants have in the main been ignored, or were thought to be extremely low (Allison 1955, 1966). Recently, however, Wetselaar and Farquhar (1980) have reviewed data that suggest that net losses from above-ground parts of plants can be substantial, up to 75 kg N/ha in 10 weeks (corresponding to 18 nmol (m2 leaf surface)−1 sec−1 from a crop with a leaf area index of 5), from a wide variety of species, in many geographical areas and under a variety of environmental conditions. They further pointed out that such losses are highest for plants with high N contents and take place mainly between anthesis and maturity. During this physiological period proteins break down in senescing leaves, liberating NH3 (Thimann 1980). Gaseous losses of NH3 are therefore possible, and have indeed been found. Gaseous losses of other reduced forms and of oxidized forms have also been found. In addition, losses as N2 have been postulated. Stutte and coworkers (Stutte and Silva 1981, Stutte and Weiland 1978, Stutte et al. 1979, Silva and Stutte 1979a, b, 1981a, b, Weiland and Stutte 1978a, b, 1979a, b, 1980) have reported gaseous fluxes from leaves that would account for the above losses. However, Wetselaar and Farquhar (1980) have suggested that the magnitude may have been overestimated.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationGaseous Loss of Nitrogen from Plant-Soil Systems
EditorsJohn Freney, John Simpson
Place of PublicationDordrecht, Netherlands
PublisherSpringer
Chapter6
Pages159 - 180
Number of pages21
Volume9
ISBN (Electronic)9789401716628
ISBN (Print)9789048182763
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1983
Externally publishedYes

Publication series

Name Developments in Plant and Soil Sciences
PublisherSpringer
Volume9

Fingerprint

nitrogen
leaves
leaf area index
aerial parts
flowering
environmental factors
crops
soil
proteins

Cite this

Farquhar, G., Wetselaar, R., & Weir, B. (1983). Gaseous nitrogen losses from plants. In J. Freney, & J. Simpson (Eds.), Gaseous Loss of Nitrogen from Plant-Soil Systems (Vol. 9, pp. 159 - 180). ( Developments in Plant and Soil Sciences; Vol. 9). Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-017-1662-8_6
Farquhar, Graham ; Wetselaar, Rob ; Weir, B. / Gaseous nitrogen losses from plants. Gaseous Loss of Nitrogen from Plant-Soil Systems. editor / John Freney ; John Simpson. Vol. 9 Dordrecht, Netherlands : Springer, 1983. pp. 159 - 180 ( Developments in Plant and Soil Sciences).
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abstract = "The identification, measurement and understanding of the different loss pathways of N from the plant-soil system are prerequisites in efforts to increase the efficiency of N added to the system through biological and industrial fixation. Of the many pathways of loss, those from plants have in the main been ignored, or were thought to be extremely low (Allison 1955, 1966). Recently, however, Wetselaar and Farquhar (1980) have reviewed data that suggest that net losses from above-ground parts of plants can be substantial, up to 75 kg N/ha in 10 weeks (corresponding to 18 nmol (m2 leaf surface)−1 sec−1 from a crop with a leaf area index of 5), from a wide variety of species, in many geographical areas and under a variety of environmental conditions. They further pointed out that such losses are highest for plants with high N contents and take place mainly between anthesis and maturity. During this physiological period proteins break down in senescing leaves, liberating NH3 (Thimann 1980). Gaseous losses of NH3 are therefore possible, and have indeed been found. Gaseous losses of other reduced forms and of oxidized forms have also been found. In addition, losses as N2 have been postulated. Stutte and coworkers (Stutte and Silva 1981, Stutte and Weiland 1978, Stutte et al. 1979, Silva and Stutte 1979a, b, 1981a, b, Weiland and Stutte 1978a, b, 1979a, b, 1980) have reported gaseous fluxes from leaves that would account for the above losses. However, Wetselaar and Farquhar (1980) have suggested that the magnitude may have been overestimated.",
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Farquhar, G, Wetselaar, R & Weir, B 1983, Gaseous nitrogen losses from plants. in J Freney & J Simpson (eds), Gaseous Loss of Nitrogen from Plant-Soil Systems. vol. 9, Developments in Plant and Soil Sciences, vol. 9, Springer, Dordrecht, Netherlands, pp. 159 - 180. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-017-1662-8_6

Gaseous nitrogen losses from plants. / Farquhar, Graham; Wetselaar, Rob; Weir, B.

Gaseous Loss of Nitrogen from Plant-Soil Systems. ed. / John Freney; John Simpson. Vol. 9 Dordrecht, Netherlands : Springer, 1983. p. 159 - 180 ( Developments in Plant and Soil Sciences; Vol. 9).

Research output: A Conference proceeding or a Chapter in BookChapter

TY - CHAP

T1 - Gaseous nitrogen losses from plants

AU - Farquhar, Graham

AU - Wetselaar, Rob

AU - Weir, B

PY - 1983

Y1 - 1983

N2 - The identification, measurement and understanding of the different loss pathways of N from the plant-soil system are prerequisites in efforts to increase the efficiency of N added to the system through biological and industrial fixation. Of the many pathways of loss, those from plants have in the main been ignored, or were thought to be extremely low (Allison 1955, 1966). Recently, however, Wetselaar and Farquhar (1980) have reviewed data that suggest that net losses from above-ground parts of plants can be substantial, up to 75 kg N/ha in 10 weeks (corresponding to 18 nmol (m2 leaf surface)−1 sec−1 from a crop with a leaf area index of 5), from a wide variety of species, in many geographical areas and under a variety of environmental conditions. They further pointed out that such losses are highest for plants with high N contents and take place mainly between anthesis and maturity. During this physiological period proteins break down in senescing leaves, liberating NH3 (Thimann 1980). Gaseous losses of NH3 are therefore possible, and have indeed been found. Gaseous losses of other reduced forms and of oxidized forms have also been found. In addition, losses as N2 have been postulated. Stutte and coworkers (Stutte and Silva 1981, Stutte and Weiland 1978, Stutte et al. 1979, Silva and Stutte 1979a, b, 1981a, b, Weiland and Stutte 1978a, b, 1979a, b, 1980) have reported gaseous fluxes from leaves that would account for the above losses. However, Wetselaar and Farquhar (1980) have suggested that the magnitude may have been overestimated.

AB - The identification, measurement and understanding of the different loss pathways of N from the plant-soil system are prerequisites in efforts to increase the efficiency of N added to the system through biological and industrial fixation. Of the many pathways of loss, those from plants have in the main been ignored, or were thought to be extremely low (Allison 1955, 1966). Recently, however, Wetselaar and Farquhar (1980) have reviewed data that suggest that net losses from above-ground parts of plants can be substantial, up to 75 kg N/ha in 10 weeks (corresponding to 18 nmol (m2 leaf surface)−1 sec−1 from a crop with a leaf area index of 5), from a wide variety of species, in many geographical areas and under a variety of environmental conditions. They further pointed out that such losses are highest for plants with high N contents and take place mainly between anthesis and maturity. During this physiological period proteins break down in senescing leaves, liberating NH3 (Thimann 1980). Gaseous losses of NH3 are therefore possible, and have indeed been found. Gaseous losses of other reduced forms and of oxidized forms have also been found. In addition, losses as N2 have been postulated. Stutte and coworkers (Stutte and Silva 1981, Stutte and Weiland 1978, Stutte et al. 1979, Silva and Stutte 1979a, b, 1981a, b, Weiland and Stutte 1978a, b, 1979a, b, 1980) have reported gaseous fluxes from leaves that would account for the above losses. However, Wetselaar and Farquhar (1980) have suggested that the magnitude may have been overestimated.

U2 - 10.1007/978-94-017-1662-8_6

DO - 10.1007/978-94-017-1662-8_6

M3 - Chapter

SN - 9789048182763

VL - 9

T3 - Developments in Plant and Soil Sciences

SP - 159

EP - 180

BT - Gaseous Loss of Nitrogen from Plant-Soil Systems

A2 - Freney, John

A2 - Simpson, John

PB - Springer

CY - Dordrecht, Netherlands

ER -

Farquhar G, Wetselaar R, Weir B. Gaseous nitrogen losses from plants. In Freney J, Simpson J, editors, Gaseous Loss of Nitrogen from Plant-Soil Systems. Vol. 9. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer. 1983. p. 159 - 180. ( Developments in Plant and Soil Sciences). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-017-1662-8_6