Genome analysis of the platypus reveals unique signatures of evolution

Wesley Warren, LaDeana Hillier, Jenny Marshall Graves, Ewan Birney, Chris Ponting, Frank Grutzner, Katherine Belov, Webb Miller, Laura Clarke, Asif Chinwalla, Shiaw-Pyng Yang, Andreas Heger, Devin Locke, Pat Miethke, Paul Waters, Frederick Veyrunes, Lucinda Fulton, Bob Fulton, Tina Graves, John WallisXose Puente, Carlos Lopez-Otin, Gonzalo Ordonez, Evan Eichler, L Chen, Ze Cheng, Janine DEAKIN, Amber Alsop, Katherine Thompson, Patrick Kirby, Anthony Papenfuss, Matthew Wakefield, Tsviya Olender, Doron Lancet, Gavin Huttley, Arian Smit, Andrew Pask, Peter Temple-Smith, Mark Batzer, Jerilyn Walker, Miriam K. Konkel, Harris S. Robert, Camilla Whittington, Emily Wong, Neil Gemmell, Emmanuel Buschiazzo, Iris Jentzsch, Angelika Merkel, Juergen Schmitz, Anja Zemann, Gennady Churakov, Jan Kriegs, Juergen Brosius, Elizabeth Murchison, Ravi Sachidanandam, Carly Smith, Gregory Hannon, Enkhjargal Tsend-Ayush, Daniel McMillan, Rosalind Attenborough, Willem Rens, Malcolm Ferguson-Smith, Christophe Lefevre, Julie Sharp, Kevin R. Nicholas, David A. Ray, Michael Kube, reinhardt Reinhardt, Thomas Pringle, James Taylor, Russell Jones, Brett Nixon, Jean-Louis Dacheux, Hitoshi Niwa, Yoko Sekita, Xiaoqiu Huang, Alexander Stark, Pouya Kheradpour, Manolis Kellis, Paul Flicek, Yuan Chen, Caleb Webber, Ross Hardison, Joanne Nelson, Kym Hallsworth-Pepin, Kim Delehaunty, Chris Markovic, Pat Minx, Yucheng Feng, Colin Kremitzki, Makedonka Mitreva, Jarret Glasscock, Todd Wylie, Patricia Wohldmann, Prathapan Thiru, Michael Nhan, Craig Pohl, Scott M. Smith, Shunfeng Hou, M. B. Renfree, Elaine Mardis, Richard Wilson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

548 Citations (Scopus)


We present a draft genome sequence of the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus. This monotreme exhibits a fascinating combination of reptilian and mammalian characters. For example, platypuses have a coat of fur adapted to an aquatic lifestyle; platypus females lactate, yet lay eggs; and males are equipped with venomsimilar to that of reptiles. Analysis of the first monotreme genome aligned these features with genetic innovations. We find that reptile and platypus venom proteins have been co-opted independently from the same gene families; milk protein genes are conserved despite platypuses laying eggs; and immune gene family expansions are directly related to platypus biology. Expansions of protein, non-protein-coding RNA and microRNA families, as well as repeat elements, are identified. Sequencing of this genome now provides a valuable resource for deep mammalian comparative analyses, as well as for monotreme biology and conservation.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)175-256
Number of pages82
Publication statusPublished - 2008
Externally publishedYes


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