Global biodiversity scenarios for the year 2100

O.E. Sala, F.S. Chapin III, J.J. Armesto, E. Berlow, J. Bloomfield, R. Dirzo, E. Huber-Sanwald, L.F. Huenneke, R.B. Jackson, A. Kinzig, Rik Leemans, D.M. Lodge, H.A. Mooney, M. Oesterheld, LeRoy POFF, M.T. Sykes, Michael Walker, D.H. Wall, Brian H Walker

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    6915 Citations (Scopus)


    Scenarios of changes in biodiversity for the year 2100 can now be developed based on scenarios of changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide, climate, vegetation, and land use and the known sensitivity of biodiversity to these changes. This study identified a ranking of the importance of drivers of change, a ranking of the biomes with respect to expected changes, and the major sources of uncertainties. For terrestrial ecosystems, land-use change probably will have the largest effect, followed by climate change, nitrogen deposition, biotic exchange, and elevated carbon dioxide concentration. For freshwater ecosystems, biotic exchange is much more important. Mediterranean climate and grassland ecosystems likely will experience the greatest proportional change in biodiversity because of the substantial influence of all drivers of biodiversity change. Northern temperate ecosystems are estimated to experience the least biodiversity change because major land-use change has already occurred. Plausible changes in biodiversity in other biomes depend on interactions among the causes of biodiversity change. These interactions represent one of the largest uncertainties in projections of future biodiversity change.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1770-1774
    Number of pages5
    Issue number5459
    Publication statusPublished - 2000


    Dive into the research topics of 'Global biodiversity scenarios for the year 2100'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

    Cite this