Predictions of climatic changes vary, but conservation activities must assume that some impacts will occur and that species abundances and distributions will change. Effects on conservation sites will be important; management plans should include protection against climatic impacts and monitoring of change. Climatic effects cannot easily be manipulated; on some sites minimal intervention, allowing natural adjustment, will be best. As wildlife is restricted by landscape fragmentation, a network of greenways should be established to facilitate movement between conservation areas. Planning in the face of uncertainty is difficult, but management goals of large populations, high biodiversity and replicated conservation of communities will aid adaptation to new conditions.