Health conditions detected in a comprehensive periodic health evaluation of 558 professional football players

Arnhild Bakken, Stephen Targett, Tone Bere, Maria Carmen Adamuz, Johannes L. Tol, Rod Whiteley, Mathew G. Wilson, Erik Witvrouw, Karim M. Khan, Roald Bahr

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    19 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Background Despite the widespread use of periodic health evaluation (PHE) to detect and prevent injury and illness in athletes, its effectiveness in detecting health conditions and relevant risk factors is still debated. Aim To assess health conditions detected by a comprehensive PHE in professional male football players and evaluate their consequences for participation clearance. Methods A total of 558 professional football players in Qatar completed a PHE prior to the 2013 or 2014 seasons: history, general medical (including blood test), cardiovascular (12-lead ECG and echocardiography) and a musculoskeletal examination, including a specific test battery targeting lower extremity strength and flexibility. On the basis of the PHE, players were either cleared or not cleared for participation. Results In 533 players (95.5%), at least one health condition was detected requiring treatment or follow-up. Vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency (≤30 ng/mL) was the most common medical condition (n=499, 89.4%), followed by hepatitis B non-immunity or infection (n=164, 29.4%). Cardiac screening identified 48 players (8.6%) with one or more abnormal findings (ECG (n=19, 3.4%) and echocardiography (n=14, 2.5%)). Musculoskeletal conditions were observed in 180 players (32.3%); injuries to or strength deficits of the hip/groin and thigh accounted for the largest proportion. Medical clearance was temporarily not given in 69 players (12.4%), while further examinations were being conducted. One player was disqualified from competitive football. Conclusions PHE revealed a high prevalence of health conditions requiring treatment or follow-up in professional footballers; however, only 12.4% of conditions impacted on final clearance for participation.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1-10
    Number of pages11
    JournalBritish Journal of Sports Medicine
    Volume50
    Issue number18
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - Mar 2016

    Fingerprint

    Football
    Health
    Echocardiography
    Electrocardiography
    Qatar
    Vitamin D Deficiency
    Groin
    Wounds and Injuries
    Hematologic Tests
    Thigh
    Hepatitis B
    Athletes
    Hip
    Lower Extremity
    History

    Cite this

    Bakken, Arnhild ; Targett, Stephen ; Bere, Tone ; Adamuz, Maria Carmen ; Tol, Johannes L. ; Whiteley, Rod ; Wilson, Mathew G. ; Witvrouw, Erik ; Khan, Karim M. ; Bahr, Roald. / Health conditions detected in a comprehensive periodic health evaluation of 558 professional football players. In: British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2016 ; Vol. 50, No. 18. pp. 1-10.
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    title = "Health conditions detected in a comprehensive periodic health evaluation of 558 professional football players",
    abstract = "Background Despite the widespread use of periodic health evaluation (PHE) to detect and prevent injury and illness in athletes, its effectiveness in detecting health conditions and relevant risk factors is still debated. Aim To assess health conditions detected by a comprehensive PHE in professional male football players and evaluate their consequences for participation clearance. Methods A total of 558 professional football players in Qatar completed a PHE prior to the 2013 or 2014 seasons: history, general medical (including blood test), cardiovascular (12-lead ECG and echocardiography) and a musculoskeletal examination, including a specific test battery targeting lower extremity strength and flexibility. On the basis of the PHE, players were either cleared or not cleared for participation. Results In 533 players (95.5{\%}), at least one health condition was detected requiring treatment or follow-up. Vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency (≤30 ng/mL) was the most common medical condition (n=499, 89.4{\%}), followed by hepatitis B non-immunity or infection (n=164, 29.4{\%}). Cardiac screening identified 48 players (8.6{\%}) with one or more abnormal findings (ECG (n=19, 3.4{\%}) and echocardiography (n=14, 2.5{\%})). Musculoskeletal conditions were observed in 180 players (32.3{\%}); injuries to or strength deficits of the hip/groin and thigh accounted for the largest proportion. Medical clearance was temporarily not given in 69 players (12.4{\%}), while further examinations were being conducted. One player was disqualified from competitive football. Conclusions PHE revealed a high prevalence of health conditions requiring treatment or follow-up in professional footballers; however, only 12.4{\%} of conditions impacted on final clearance for participation.",
    keywords = "Football, Health promotion, Injury prevention, Prevention, Sports medicine",
    author = "Arnhild Bakken and Stephen Targett and Tone Bere and Adamuz, {Maria Carmen} and Tol, {Johannes L.} and Rod Whiteley and Wilson, {Mathew G.} and Erik Witvrouw and Khan, {Karim M.} and Roald Bahr",
    year = "2016",
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    Bakken, A, Targett, S, Bere, T, Adamuz, MC, Tol, JL, Whiteley, R, Wilson, MG, Witvrouw, E, Khan, KM & Bahr, R 2016, 'Health conditions detected in a comprehensive periodic health evaluation of 558 professional football players', British Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 50, no. 18, pp. 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2015-095829

    Health conditions detected in a comprehensive periodic health evaluation of 558 professional football players. / Bakken, Arnhild; Targett, Stephen; Bere, Tone; Adamuz, Maria Carmen; Tol, Johannes L.; Whiteley, Rod; Wilson, Mathew G.; Witvrouw, Erik; Khan, Karim M.; Bahr, Roald.

    In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, Vol. 50, No. 18, 03.2016, p. 1-10.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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    T1 - Health conditions detected in a comprehensive periodic health evaluation of 558 professional football players

    AU - Bakken, Arnhild

    AU - Targett, Stephen

    AU - Bere, Tone

    AU - Adamuz, Maria Carmen

    AU - Tol, Johannes L.

    AU - Whiteley, Rod

    AU - Wilson, Mathew G.

    AU - Witvrouw, Erik

    AU - Khan, Karim M.

    AU - Bahr, Roald

    PY - 2016/3

    Y1 - 2016/3

    N2 - Background Despite the widespread use of periodic health evaluation (PHE) to detect and prevent injury and illness in athletes, its effectiveness in detecting health conditions and relevant risk factors is still debated. Aim To assess health conditions detected by a comprehensive PHE in professional male football players and evaluate their consequences for participation clearance. Methods A total of 558 professional football players in Qatar completed a PHE prior to the 2013 or 2014 seasons: history, general medical (including blood test), cardiovascular (12-lead ECG and echocardiography) and a musculoskeletal examination, including a specific test battery targeting lower extremity strength and flexibility. On the basis of the PHE, players were either cleared or not cleared for participation. Results In 533 players (95.5%), at least one health condition was detected requiring treatment or follow-up. Vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency (≤30 ng/mL) was the most common medical condition (n=499, 89.4%), followed by hepatitis B non-immunity or infection (n=164, 29.4%). Cardiac screening identified 48 players (8.6%) with one or more abnormal findings (ECG (n=19, 3.4%) and echocardiography (n=14, 2.5%)). Musculoskeletal conditions were observed in 180 players (32.3%); injuries to or strength deficits of the hip/groin and thigh accounted for the largest proportion. Medical clearance was temporarily not given in 69 players (12.4%), while further examinations were being conducted. One player was disqualified from competitive football. Conclusions PHE revealed a high prevalence of health conditions requiring treatment or follow-up in professional footballers; however, only 12.4% of conditions impacted on final clearance for participation.

    AB - Background Despite the widespread use of periodic health evaluation (PHE) to detect and prevent injury and illness in athletes, its effectiveness in detecting health conditions and relevant risk factors is still debated. Aim To assess health conditions detected by a comprehensive PHE in professional male football players and evaluate their consequences for participation clearance. Methods A total of 558 professional football players in Qatar completed a PHE prior to the 2013 or 2014 seasons: history, general medical (including blood test), cardiovascular (12-lead ECG and echocardiography) and a musculoskeletal examination, including a specific test battery targeting lower extremity strength and flexibility. On the basis of the PHE, players were either cleared or not cleared for participation. Results In 533 players (95.5%), at least one health condition was detected requiring treatment or follow-up. Vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency (≤30 ng/mL) was the most common medical condition (n=499, 89.4%), followed by hepatitis B non-immunity or infection (n=164, 29.4%). Cardiac screening identified 48 players (8.6%) with one or more abnormal findings (ECG (n=19, 3.4%) and echocardiography (n=14, 2.5%)). Musculoskeletal conditions were observed in 180 players (32.3%); injuries to or strength deficits of the hip/groin and thigh accounted for the largest proportion. Medical clearance was temporarily not given in 69 players (12.4%), while further examinations were being conducted. One player was disqualified from competitive football. Conclusions PHE revealed a high prevalence of health conditions requiring treatment or follow-up in professional footballers; however, only 12.4% of conditions impacted on final clearance for participation.

    KW - Football

    KW - Health promotion

    KW - Injury prevention

    KW - Prevention

    KW - Sports medicine

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