Health effects of overweight and obesity in 195 countries over 25 years

GBD 2015 Obesity Collaborators, Yohannes Kinfu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

940 Citations (Scopus)
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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Although the rising pandemic of obesity has received major attention in many countries, the effects of this attention on trends and the disease burden of obesity remain uncertain. METHODS: We analyzed data from 68.5 million persons to assess the trends in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and adults between 1980 and 2015. Using the Global Burden of Disease study data and methods, we also quantified the burden of disease related to high body-mass index (BMI), according to age, sex, cause, and BMI in 195 countries between 1990 and 2015. RESULTS: In 2015, a total of 107.7 million children and 603.7 million adults were obese. Since 1980, the prevalence of obesity has doubled in more than 70 countries and has continuously increased in most other countries. Although the prevalence of obesity among children has been lower than that among adults, the rate of increase in childhood obesity in many countries has been greater than the rate of increase in adult obesity. High BMI accounted for 4.0 million deaths globally, nearly 40% of which occurred in persons who were not obese. More than two thirds of deaths related to high BMI were due to cardiovascular disease. The disease burden related to high BMI has increased since 1990; however, the rate of this increase has been attenuated owing to decreases in underlying rates of death from cardiovascular disease. CONCLUSIONS: The rapid increase in the prevalence and disease burden of elevated BMI highlights the need for continued focus on surveillance of BMI and identification, implementation, and evaluation of evidence-based interventions to address this problem. (Funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.)

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)13-27
Number of pages15
JournalNew England Journal of Medicine
Volume377
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 6 Jul 2017

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Body Mass Index
Obesity
Pediatric Obesity
Health
Cardiovascular Diseases
Pandemics
Mortality

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@article{8e1dc54f8ca34455a9211ac04be117f1,
title = "Health effects of overweight and obesity in 195 countries over 25 years",
abstract = "BACKGROUND: Although the rising pandemic of obesity has received major attention in many countries, the effects of this attention on trends and the disease burden of obesity remain uncertain. METHODS: We analyzed data from 68.5 million persons to assess the trends in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and adults between 1980 and 2015. Using the Global Burden of Disease study data and methods, we also quantified the burden of disease related to high body-mass index (BMI), according to age, sex, cause, and BMI in 195 countries between 1990 and 2015. RESULTS: In 2015, a total of 107.7 million children and 603.7 million adults were obese. Since 1980, the prevalence of obesity has doubled in more than 70 countries and has continuously increased in most other countries. Although the prevalence of obesity among children has been lower than that among adults, the rate of increase in childhood obesity in many countries has been greater than the rate of increase in adult obesity. High BMI accounted for 4.0 million deaths globally, nearly 40{\%} of which occurred in persons who were not obese. More than two thirds of deaths related to high BMI were due to cardiovascular disease. The disease burden related to high BMI has increased since 1990; however, the rate of this increase has been attenuated owing to decreases in underlying rates of death from cardiovascular disease. CONCLUSIONS: The rapid increase in the prevalence and disease burden of elevated BMI highlights the need for continued focus on surveillance of BMI and identification, implementation, and evaluation of evidence-based interventions to address this problem. (Funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.)",
keywords = "Adult, Body Mass Index, Cardiovascular Diseases, Child, Female, Global Health, Humans, Male, Obesity, Overweight, Pediatric Obesity, Prevalence, Journal Article",
author = "{GBD 2015 Obesity Collaborators} and Ashkan Afshin and Forouzanfar, {Mohammad H.} and Reitsma, {Marissa B.} and Patrick Sur and Kara Estep and Alex Lee and Laurie Marczak and Mokdad, {Ali H.} and Maziar Moradi-Lakeh and Mohsen Naghavi and Salama, {Joseph S.} and Theo Vos and Abate, {Kalkidan H.} and Cristiana Abbafati and Ahmed, {Muktar B.} and Ziyad Al-Aly and Ala'a Alkerwi and Rajaa Al-Raddadi and Amare, {Azmeraw T.} and Alemayehu Amberbir and Amegah, {Adeladza K.} and Erfan Amini and Amrock, {Stephen M.} and Anjana, {Ranjit M.} and Johan {\"A}rnl{\"o}v and Hamid Asayesh and Amitava Banerjee and Aleksandra Barac and Estifanos Baye and Bennett, {Derrick A.} and Beyene, {Addisu S.} and Sibhatu Biadgilign and Stan Biryukov and Espen Bjertness and Boneya, {Dube J.} and Ismael Campos-Nonato and Carrero, {Juan J.} and Pedro Cecilio and Kelly Cercy and Ciobanu, {Liliana G.} and Leslie Cornaby and Damtew, {Solomon A.} and Lalit Dandona and Rakhi Dandona and Dharmaratne, {Samath D.} and Duncan, {Bruce B.} and Babak Eshrati and Alireza Esteghamati and Feigin, {Valery L.} and Fernandes, {Jo{\~a}o C.} and Thomas F{\"u}rst and Gebrehiwot, {Tsegaye T.} and Audra Gold and Gona, {Philimon N.} and Atsushi Goto and Habtewold, {Tesfa D.} and Hadush, {Kokeb T.} and Nima Hafezi-Nejad and Hay, {Simon I.} and Masako Horino and Farhad Islami and Ritul Kamal and Amir Kasaeian and Katikireddi, {Srinivasa V.} and Kengne, {Andre P.} and Kesavachandran, {Chandrasekharan N.} and Khader, {Yousef S.} and Khang, {Young Ho} and Jagdish Khubchandani and Daniel Kim and Kim, {Yun J.} and Yohannes Kinfu and Soewarta Kosen and Tiffany Ku and Defo, {Barthelemy Kuate} and Kumar, {G. Anil} and Larson, {Heidi J.} and Mall Leinsalu and Xiaofeng Liang and Lim, {Stephen S.} and Patrick Liu and Lopez, {Alan D.} and Rafael Lozano and Azeem Majeed and Reza Malekzadeh and Malta, {Deborah C.} and Mohsen Mazidi and Colm McAlinden and McGarvey, {Stephen T.} and Mengistu, {Desalegn T.} and Mensah, {George A.} and Mensink, {Gert B.M.} and Mezgebe, {Haftay B.} and Mirrakhimov, {Erkin M.} and Mueller, {Ulrich O.} and Noubiap, {Jean J.} and Obermeyer, {Carla M.} and Ogbo, {Felix A.} and Owolabi, {Mayowa O.} and Patton, {George C.} and Farshad Pourmalek and Mostafa Qorbani and Anwar Rafay and Rai, {Rajesh K.} and Ranabhat, {Chhabi L.} and Nikolas Reinig and Saeid Safiri and Salomon, {Joshua A.} and Sanabria, {Juan R.} and Santos, {Itamar S.} and Benn Sartorius and Monika Sawhney and Josef Schmidhuber and Schutte, {Aletta E.} and Schmidt, {Maria I.} and Sepanlou, {Sadaf G.} and Moretza Shamsizadeh and Sara Sheikhbahaei and Shin, {Min Jeong} and Rahman Shiri and Ivy Shiue and Roba, {Hirbo S.} and Silva, {Diego A.S.} and Silverberg, {Jonathan I.} and Singh, {Jasvinder A.} and Saverio Stranges and Soumya Swaminathan and Rafael Tabar{\'e}s-Seisdedos and Fentaw Tadese and Tedla, {Bemnet A.} and Tegegne, {Balewgizie S.} and Terkawi, {Abdullah S.} and Thakur, {J. S.} and Marcello Tonelli and Roman Topor-Madry and Stefanos Tyrovolas and Ukwaja, {Kingsley N.} and Uthman, {Olalekan A.} and Masoud Vaezghasemi and Tommi Vasankari and Vlassov, {Vasiliy V.} and Vollset, {Stein E.} and Elisabete Weiderpass and Andrea Werdecker and Joshua Wesana and Ronny Westerman and Yuichiro Yano and Naohiro Yonemoto and Gerald Yonga and Zoubida Zaidi and Zenebe, {Zerihun M.} and Ben Zipkin and Murray, {Christopher J.L.}",
year = "2017",
month = "7",
day = "6",
doi = "10.1056/NEJMoa1614362",
language = "English",
volume = "377",
pages = "13--27",
journal = "The New England Journal of Medicine",
issn = "0028-4793",
publisher = "Massachussetts Medical Society",
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}

Health effects of overweight and obesity in 195 countries over 25 years. / GBD 2015 Obesity Collaborators ; Kinfu, Yohannes.

In: New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 377, No. 1, 06.07.2017, p. 13-27.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Health effects of overweight and obesity in 195 countries over 25 years

AU - GBD 2015 Obesity Collaborators

AU - Afshin, Ashkan

AU - Forouzanfar, Mohammad H.

AU - Reitsma, Marissa B.

AU - Sur, Patrick

AU - Estep, Kara

AU - Lee, Alex

AU - Marczak, Laurie

AU - Mokdad, Ali H.

AU - Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar

AU - Naghavi, Mohsen

AU - Salama, Joseph S.

AU - Vos, Theo

AU - Abate, Kalkidan H.

AU - Abbafati, Cristiana

AU - Ahmed, Muktar B.

AU - Al-Aly, Ziyad

AU - Alkerwi, Ala'a

AU - Al-Raddadi, Rajaa

AU - Amare, Azmeraw T.

AU - Amberbir, Alemayehu

AU - Amegah, Adeladza K.

AU - Amini, Erfan

AU - Amrock, Stephen M.

AU - Anjana, Ranjit M.

AU - Ärnlöv, Johan

AU - Asayesh, Hamid

AU - Banerjee, Amitava

AU - Barac, Aleksandra

AU - Baye, Estifanos

AU - Bennett, Derrick A.

AU - Beyene, Addisu S.

AU - Biadgilign, Sibhatu

AU - Biryukov, Stan

AU - Bjertness, Espen

AU - Boneya, Dube J.

AU - Campos-Nonato, Ismael

AU - Carrero, Juan J.

AU - Cecilio, Pedro

AU - Cercy, Kelly

AU - Ciobanu, Liliana G.

AU - Cornaby, Leslie

AU - Damtew, Solomon A.

AU - Dandona, Lalit

AU - Dandona, Rakhi

AU - Dharmaratne, Samath D.

AU - Duncan, Bruce B.

AU - Eshrati, Babak

AU - Esteghamati, Alireza

AU - Feigin, Valery L.

AU - Fernandes, João C.

AU - Fürst, Thomas

AU - Gebrehiwot, Tsegaye T.

AU - Gold, Audra

AU - Gona, Philimon N.

AU - Goto, Atsushi

AU - Habtewold, Tesfa D.

AU - Hadush, Kokeb T.

AU - Hafezi-Nejad, Nima

AU - Hay, Simon I.

AU - Horino, Masako

AU - Islami, Farhad

AU - Kamal, Ritul

AU - Kasaeian, Amir

AU - Katikireddi, Srinivasa V.

AU - Kengne, Andre P.

AU - Kesavachandran, Chandrasekharan N.

AU - Khader, Yousef S.

AU - Khang, Young Ho

AU - Khubchandani, Jagdish

AU - Kim, Daniel

AU - Kim, Yun J.

AU - Kinfu, Yohannes

AU - Kosen, Soewarta

AU - Ku, Tiffany

AU - Defo, Barthelemy Kuate

AU - Kumar, G. Anil

AU - Larson, Heidi J.

AU - Leinsalu, Mall

AU - Liang, Xiaofeng

AU - Lim, Stephen S.

AU - Liu, Patrick

AU - Lopez, Alan D.

AU - Lozano, Rafael

AU - Majeed, Azeem

AU - Malekzadeh, Reza

AU - Malta, Deborah C.

AU - Mazidi, Mohsen

AU - McAlinden, Colm

AU - McGarvey, Stephen T.

AU - Mengistu, Desalegn T.

AU - Mensah, George A.

AU - Mensink, Gert B.M.

AU - Mezgebe, Haftay B.

AU - Mirrakhimov, Erkin M.

AU - Mueller, Ulrich O.

AU - Noubiap, Jean J.

AU - Obermeyer, Carla M.

AU - Ogbo, Felix A.

AU - Owolabi, Mayowa O.

AU - Patton, George C.

AU - Pourmalek, Farshad

AU - Qorbani, Mostafa

AU - Rafay, Anwar

AU - Rai, Rajesh K.

AU - Ranabhat, Chhabi L.

AU - Reinig, Nikolas

AU - Safiri, Saeid

AU - Salomon, Joshua A.

AU - Sanabria, Juan R.

AU - Santos, Itamar S.

AU - Sartorius, Benn

AU - Sawhney, Monika

AU - Schmidhuber, Josef

AU - Schutte, Aletta E.

AU - Schmidt, Maria I.

AU - Sepanlou, Sadaf G.

AU - Shamsizadeh, Moretza

AU - Sheikhbahaei, Sara

AU - Shin, Min Jeong

AU - Shiri, Rahman

AU - Shiue, Ivy

AU - Roba, Hirbo S.

AU - Silva, Diego A.S.

AU - Silverberg, Jonathan I.

AU - Singh, Jasvinder A.

AU - Stranges, Saverio

AU - Swaminathan, Soumya

AU - Tabarés-Seisdedos, Rafael

AU - Tadese, Fentaw

AU - Tedla, Bemnet A.

AU - Tegegne, Balewgizie S.

AU - Terkawi, Abdullah S.

AU - Thakur, J. S.

AU - Tonelli, Marcello

AU - Topor-Madry, Roman

AU - Tyrovolas, Stefanos

AU - Ukwaja, Kingsley N.

AU - Uthman, Olalekan A.

AU - Vaezghasemi, Masoud

AU - Vasankari, Tommi

AU - Vlassov, Vasiliy V.

AU - Vollset, Stein E.

AU - Weiderpass, Elisabete

AU - Werdecker, Andrea

AU - Wesana, Joshua

AU - Westerman, Ronny

AU - Yano, Yuichiro

AU - Yonemoto, Naohiro

AU - Yonga, Gerald

AU - Zaidi, Zoubida

AU - Zenebe, Zerihun M.

AU - Zipkin, Ben

AU - Murray, Christopher J.L.

PY - 2017/7/6

Y1 - 2017/7/6

N2 - BACKGROUND: Although the rising pandemic of obesity has received major attention in many countries, the effects of this attention on trends and the disease burden of obesity remain uncertain. METHODS: We analyzed data from 68.5 million persons to assess the trends in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and adults between 1980 and 2015. Using the Global Burden of Disease study data and methods, we also quantified the burden of disease related to high body-mass index (BMI), according to age, sex, cause, and BMI in 195 countries between 1990 and 2015. RESULTS: In 2015, a total of 107.7 million children and 603.7 million adults were obese. Since 1980, the prevalence of obesity has doubled in more than 70 countries and has continuously increased in most other countries. Although the prevalence of obesity among children has been lower than that among adults, the rate of increase in childhood obesity in many countries has been greater than the rate of increase in adult obesity. High BMI accounted for 4.0 million deaths globally, nearly 40% of which occurred in persons who were not obese. More than two thirds of deaths related to high BMI were due to cardiovascular disease. The disease burden related to high BMI has increased since 1990; however, the rate of this increase has been attenuated owing to decreases in underlying rates of death from cardiovascular disease. CONCLUSIONS: The rapid increase in the prevalence and disease burden of elevated BMI highlights the need for continued focus on surveillance of BMI and identification, implementation, and evaluation of evidence-based interventions to address this problem. (Funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.)

AB - BACKGROUND: Although the rising pandemic of obesity has received major attention in many countries, the effects of this attention on trends and the disease burden of obesity remain uncertain. METHODS: We analyzed data from 68.5 million persons to assess the trends in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and adults between 1980 and 2015. Using the Global Burden of Disease study data and methods, we also quantified the burden of disease related to high body-mass index (BMI), according to age, sex, cause, and BMI in 195 countries between 1990 and 2015. RESULTS: In 2015, a total of 107.7 million children and 603.7 million adults were obese. Since 1980, the prevalence of obesity has doubled in more than 70 countries and has continuously increased in most other countries. Although the prevalence of obesity among children has been lower than that among adults, the rate of increase in childhood obesity in many countries has been greater than the rate of increase in adult obesity. High BMI accounted for 4.0 million deaths globally, nearly 40% of which occurred in persons who were not obese. More than two thirds of deaths related to high BMI were due to cardiovascular disease. The disease burden related to high BMI has increased since 1990; however, the rate of this increase has been attenuated owing to decreases in underlying rates of death from cardiovascular disease. CONCLUSIONS: The rapid increase in the prevalence and disease burden of elevated BMI highlights the need for continued focus on surveillance of BMI and identification, implementation, and evaluation of evidence-based interventions to address this problem. (Funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.)

KW - Adult

KW - Body Mass Index

KW - Cardiovascular Diseases

KW - Child

KW - Female

KW - Global Health

KW - Humans

KW - Male

KW - Obesity

KW - Overweight

KW - Pediatric Obesity

KW - Prevalence

KW - Journal Article

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85021855537&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1056/NEJMoa1614362

DO - 10.1056/NEJMoa1614362

M3 - Article

VL - 377

SP - 13

EP - 27

JO - The New England Journal of Medicine

JF - The New England Journal of Medicine

SN - 0028-4793

IS - 1

ER -