The book is designed to provide a flowing description of the physiology of heat stress, the illnesses associated with heat exposure, recommendations on optimising health and performance, and an examination of Olympic sports played in potentially hot environmental conditions. In the first section the book examines how heat stress effects performance by outlining the basics of thermoregulation and how these responses impact on cardiovascular, central nervous system, and skeletal muscle function. It also outlines the pathophysiology and treatment of exertional heat illness, as well as the role of hydration status during exercise in the heat. Thereafter, countermeasures (e.g. cooling and heat acclimation) are covered and an explanation as to how they may aid in decreasing the incidence of heat illness and minimise the impairment in performance is provided. A novel and particular feature of the book is its inclusion of sport-specific chapters in which the influence of heat stress on performance and health is described, as well as strategies and policies adopted by the governing bodies in trying to offset the deleterious role of thermal strain. Given the breadth and scope of the sections, the book will be a reference guide for clinicians, practitioners, coaches, athletes, researchers, and students.