To determine whether risk taking personality is associated with compliance in contact lens wear, and how practitioner perception of compliance compares with wearer risk taking and non-compliant behaviour. Method: Optometrists in Australia, recruited through professional organizations, were asked to enroll up to 10 current contact lens wearers each. Wearers completed a questionnaire assessing risk-taking propensity (20-item instrument), non-compliant behaviour and demographics. Non-compliance was scored on four components (maximum score 40, lens disinfection, 20; hand hygiene, 8; case hygiene, 6; case replacement, 6). Independently, practitioners ranked each wearer's non-compliance on a 1-5 scale. Associations between wearer risk taking propensity, non-compliant behaviour and practitioner perceived non-compliance were investigated using Pearson correlation. Significant associations were entered into a linear regression model predicting overall non-compliant behaviour. Results: Seventy-three wearers were recruited by 18 optometrists (mean 4, range 1-10). Wearer risk taking was associated with less compliance (p< 0.01) as was younger age (p< 0.01) and male gender (p= 0.02). Years of lens wear was not associated with non-compliant behaviour (p= 0.8), nor was practitioner perception of compliance (p> 0.6) Linear regression indicated that risk taking was the only independent significant factor predicting non-compliance, explaining 24% of the variation in behaviour. Conclusion: A higher risk taking personality style of contact lens wearers in Australia is associated with less compliant behaviour. Risk taking is a better predictor of compliance than age, gender and practitioner perception and helps explain the individual characteristics of wearers that may influence lens care and maintenance.