Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is understood to be a significant human pathogen in infants, young children, and the elderly and the immunocompromised. Over the last decade many important mechanisms contributing to RSV infection, replication, and disease pathogenesis have been revealed; however, there is still insufficient knowledge which has in part hampered vaccine development. Considerable information is accumulating regarding how RSV proteins modulate molecular signaling and immune responses to infection. Understanding how RSV interacts with its host is crucial to facilitate the development of safe and effective vaccines and therapeutic treatments. In this chapter, we provide a brief introduction into RSV replication, pathogenesis, and host immune response, and summarize the state of RSV vaccine and antiviral compounds in clinical stages of development. This chapter frames features of this book and the molecular methods used for understanding RSV interaction with the host.