Human-Swarm-Teaming Transparency and Trust Architecture

Adam J. Hepworth, Daniel P. Baxter, Aya Hussein, Kate J. Yaxley, Essam Debie, Hussein A. Abbass

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Citations (Scopus)


Transparency is a widely used but poorly defined term within the explainable artificial intelligence literature. This is due, in part, to the lack of an agreed definition and the overlap between the connected - sometimes used synonymously - concepts of interpretability and explain ability. We assert that transparency is the overarching concept, with the tenets of interpretability, explainability, and predictability subordinate. We draw on a portfolio of definitions for each of these distinct concepts to propose a human-swarm-teaming transparency and trust architecture (HST3-Architecture). The architecture reinforces transparency as a key contributor towards situation awareness, and consequently as an enabler for effective trustworthy human-swarm teaming (HST).

Original languageEnglish
Article number9310665
Pages (from-to)1281-1295
Number of pages15
JournalIEEE/CAA Journal of Automatica Sinica
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2020
Externally publishedYes


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