A gene encoding a novel RhoGAP of 1146 amino acids was isolated from rat testis RNA. Analysis of this protein identified two conserved domains, a RhoGAP domain and an RA domain. Thus the gene was named RARhoGAP. The RhoGAP domain contained conserved residues critical for RhoGAP activity, suggesting this domain is involved in the down-regulation of Rho GTPases. The presence of the RA domain suggests that RARhoGAP also functions as an effector for Ras- or Ral-like GTPases. RT-PCR analysis showed the transcript was ubiquitous in extragonadal tissues; however, Northern analysis indicated highest expression was in the testis. Homologues of rat RARhoGAP were found in mouse and human and were found expressed in testis by nested RT-PCR. In situ hybridization confirmed the specific expression of RARhoGAP in differentiating male germ cells. We postulate that RARhoGAP may be involved in rearrangements of the cytoskeleton and cell signaling events that occur during spermatogenesis.