Increased variability of lap speeds: Differentiating medalists and nonmedalists in middle-distance running and swimming events

Graham J. Mytton, David T. Archer, Louise Turner, Andrew Renfree, Kevin THOMPSON, Alan St Clair Gibson

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    13 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Purpose: Previous literature has presented pacing data of groups of competition finalists. The aim of this study was to analyze the pacing patterns displayed by medalists and nonmedalists in international competitive 400-m swimming and 1500-m running finals. Methods: Split times were collected from 48 swimming finalists (four 100-m laps) and 60 running finalists (4 laps) in international competitions from 2004 to 2012. Using a cross-sectional design, lap speeds were normalized to whole-race speed and compared to identify variations of pace between groups of medalists and nonmedalists. Lap-speed variations relative to the gold medalist were compared for the whole field. Results: In 400-m swimming the medalist group demonstrated greater variation in speed than the nonmedalist group, being relatively faster in the final lap (P <.001; moderate effect) and slower in laps 1 (P = .03; moderate effect) and 2 (P > .001; moderate effect). There were also greater variations of pace in the 1500-m running medalist group than in the nonmedalist group, with a relatively faster final lap (P = .03; moderate effect) and slower second lap (P = .01; small effect). Swimming gold medalists were relatively faster than all other finalists in lap 4 (P = .04), and running gold medalists were relatively faster than the 5th- to 12th-placed athletes in the final lap (P = .02). Conclusions: Athletes who win medals in 1500-m running and 400-m swimming competitions show different pacing patterns than nonmedalists. End-spurtspeed increases are greater with medalists, who demonstrate a slower relative speed in the early part of races but a faster speed during the final part of races than nonmedalists.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)369-373
    Number of pages5
    JournalInternational Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
    Volume10
    Issue number3
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - Apr 2015

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    Mytton, Graham J. ; Archer, David T. ; Turner, Louise ; Renfree, Andrew ; THOMPSON, Kevin ; Gibson, Alan St Clair. / Increased variability of lap speeds: Differentiating medalists and nonmedalists in middle-distance running and swimming events. In: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 2015 ; Vol. 10, No. 3. pp. 369-373.
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    title = "Increased variability of lap speeds: Differentiating medalists and nonmedalists in middle-distance running and swimming events",
    abstract = "Purpose: Previous literature has presented pacing data of groups of competition finalists. The aim of this study was to analyze the pacing patterns displayed by medalists and nonmedalists in international competitive 400-m swimming and 1500-m running finals. Methods: Split times were collected from 48 swimming finalists (four 100-m laps) and 60 running finalists (4 laps) in international competitions from 2004 to 2012. Using a cross-sectional design, lap speeds were normalized to whole-race speed and compared to identify variations of pace between groups of medalists and nonmedalists. Lap-speed variations relative to the gold medalist were compared for the whole field. Results: In 400-m swimming the medalist group demonstrated greater variation in speed than the nonmedalist group, being relatively faster in the final lap (P <.001; moderate effect) and slower in laps 1 (P = .03; moderate effect) and 2 (P > .001; moderate effect). There were also greater variations of pace in the 1500-m running medalist group than in the nonmedalist group, with a relatively faster final lap (P = .03; moderate effect) and slower second lap (P = .01; small effect). Swimming gold medalists were relatively faster than all other finalists in lap 4 (P = .04), and running gold medalists were relatively faster than the 5th- to 12th-placed athletes in the final lap (P = .02). Conclusions: Athletes who win medals in 1500-m running and 400-m swimming competitions show different pacing patterns than nonmedalists. End-spurtspeed increases are greater with medalists, who demonstrate a slower relative speed in the early part of races but a faster speed during the final part of races than nonmedalists.",
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    author = "Mytton, {Graham J.} and Archer, {David T.} and Louise Turner and Andrew Renfree and Kevin THOMPSON and Gibson, {Alan St Clair}",
    year = "2015",
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    Increased variability of lap speeds: Differentiating medalists and nonmedalists in middle-distance running and swimming events. / Mytton, Graham J.; Archer, David T.; Turner, Louise; Renfree, Andrew; THOMPSON, Kevin; Gibson, Alan St Clair.

    In: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, Vol. 10, No. 3, 04.2015, p. 369-373.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Increased variability of lap speeds: Differentiating medalists and nonmedalists in middle-distance running and swimming events

    AU - Mytton, Graham J.

    AU - Archer, David T.

    AU - Turner, Louise

    AU - Renfree, Andrew

    AU - THOMPSON, Kevin

    AU - Gibson, Alan St Clair

    PY - 2015/4

    Y1 - 2015/4

    N2 - Purpose: Previous literature has presented pacing data of groups of competition finalists. The aim of this study was to analyze the pacing patterns displayed by medalists and nonmedalists in international competitive 400-m swimming and 1500-m running finals. Methods: Split times were collected from 48 swimming finalists (four 100-m laps) and 60 running finalists (4 laps) in international competitions from 2004 to 2012. Using a cross-sectional design, lap speeds were normalized to whole-race speed and compared to identify variations of pace between groups of medalists and nonmedalists. Lap-speed variations relative to the gold medalist were compared for the whole field. Results: In 400-m swimming the medalist group demonstrated greater variation in speed than the nonmedalist group, being relatively faster in the final lap (P <.001; moderate effect) and slower in laps 1 (P = .03; moderate effect) and 2 (P > .001; moderate effect). There were also greater variations of pace in the 1500-m running medalist group than in the nonmedalist group, with a relatively faster final lap (P = .03; moderate effect) and slower second lap (P = .01; small effect). Swimming gold medalists were relatively faster than all other finalists in lap 4 (P = .04), and running gold medalists were relatively faster than the 5th- to 12th-placed athletes in the final lap (P = .02). Conclusions: Athletes who win medals in 1500-m running and 400-m swimming competitions show different pacing patterns than nonmedalists. End-spurtspeed increases are greater with medalists, who demonstrate a slower relative speed in the early part of races but a faster speed during the final part of races than nonmedalists.

    AB - Purpose: Previous literature has presented pacing data of groups of competition finalists. The aim of this study was to analyze the pacing patterns displayed by medalists and nonmedalists in international competitive 400-m swimming and 1500-m running finals. Methods: Split times were collected from 48 swimming finalists (four 100-m laps) and 60 running finalists (4 laps) in international competitions from 2004 to 2012. Using a cross-sectional design, lap speeds were normalized to whole-race speed and compared to identify variations of pace between groups of medalists and nonmedalists. Lap-speed variations relative to the gold medalist were compared for the whole field. Results: In 400-m swimming the medalist group demonstrated greater variation in speed than the nonmedalist group, being relatively faster in the final lap (P <.001; moderate effect) and slower in laps 1 (P = .03; moderate effect) and 2 (P > .001; moderate effect). There were also greater variations of pace in the 1500-m running medalist group than in the nonmedalist group, with a relatively faster final lap (P = .03; moderate effect) and slower second lap (P = .01; small effect). Swimming gold medalists were relatively faster than all other finalists in lap 4 (P = .04), and running gold medalists were relatively faster than the 5th- to 12th-placed athletes in the final lap (P = .02). Conclusions: Athletes who win medals in 1500-m running and 400-m swimming competitions show different pacing patterns than nonmedalists. End-spurtspeed increases are greater with medalists, who demonstrate a slower relative speed in the early part of races but a faster speed during the final part of races than nonmedalists.

    KW - Competitive Behavior

    KW - Cross-Sectional Studies

    KW - Humans

    KW - Male

    KW - Physical Endurance

    KW - Running

    KW - Swimming

    KW - Journal Article

    KW - Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

    U2 - 10.1123/ijspp.2014-0207

    DO - 10.1123/ijspp.2014-0207

    M3 - Article

    VL - 10

    SP - 369

    EP - 373

    JO - International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance

    JF - International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance

    SN - 1555-0265

    IS - 3

    ER -