Independent Influence of Spinal Cord Injury Level on Thermoregulation during Exercise

Peta Forsyth, Joanna Miller, Kate Pumpa, Kevin G. Thompson, Ollie Jay

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

PURPOSE: This study aimed to establish the true influence of spinal cord injury (SCI) level on core temperature and sweating during exercise in the heat independently of biophysical factors.

METHODS: A total of 31 trained males (8 with tetraplegia [TP; C5-C8], 7 with high paraplegia [HP; T1-T5], 8 with low paraplegia [LP; T6-L1], and 8 able bodied [AB]) performed 3 × 10 min of arm ergometry with 3-min rest at a metabolic heat production of (a) 4.0 W·kg (AB vs TP) or (b) 6.0 W·kg (AB vs HP vs LP), in 35°C, 50% relative humidity. Esophageal (Tes) and local skin temperatures and local sweat rate (LSR) on the forehead and upper back were measured throughout.

RESULTS: Change in Tes was greatest in TP (1.86°C ± 0.32°C vs 0.29°C ± 0.07°C, P < 0.001) and greater in HP compared with LP and AB, reaching 1.20°C ± 0.50°C, 0.66°C ± 0.23°C, and 0.53°C ± 0.12°C, respectively (P < 0.001). Approximately half of the variability in end-trial ΔTes was described by SCI level in paraplegics (adjusted R = 0.490, P = 0.005). Esophageal temperature onset thresholds of sweating at the forehead and upper back were similar among HP, LP, and AB, whereas no sweating was observed in TP. Thermosensitivity (ΔTes vs ΔLSR) was also similar, except for LP demonstrating lower thermosensitivity than AB at the upper back (0.78 ± 0.26 vs 1.59 ± 0.89 mg·cm·min, P = 0.039). Change in skin temperature was greatest in denervated regions, most notably at the calf in all SCI groups (TP, 2.07°C ± 0.93°C; HP, 2.73°C ± 0.68°C; LP, 2.92°C ± 1.48°C).

CONCLUSION: This study is the first to show the relationship between ΔTes and SCI level in athletes with paraplegia after removing variability arising from differences in metabolic heat production and mass. Individual variability in ΔTes is further reduced among athletes with TP because of minimal evaporative heat loss secondary to an absence of sweating.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1710-1719
Number of pages10
JournalMedicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Volume51
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2019

Fingerprint

Sweating
Body Temperature Regulation
Spinal Cord Injuries
Paraplegia
Forehead
Skin Temperature
Sweat
Thermogenesis
Athletes
Hot Temperature
Ergometry
Quadriplegia
Temperature
Humidity
Arm

Cite this

@article{01470373f7574ba888265647621f9a5f,
title = "Independent Influence of Spinal Cord Injury Level on Thermoregulation during Exercise",
abstract = "PURPOSE: This study aimed to establish the true influence of spinal cord injury (SCI) level on core temperature and sweating during exercise in the heat independently of biophysical factors.METHODS: A total of 31 trained males (8 with tetraplegia [TP; C5-C8], 7 with high paraplegia [HP; T1-T5], 8 with low paraplegia [LP; T6-L1], and 8 able bodied [AB]) performed 3 × 10 min of arm ergometry with 3-min rest at a metabolic heat production of (a) 4.0 W·kg (AB vs TP) or (b) 6.0 W·kg (AB vs HP vs LP), in 35°C, 50{\%} relative humidity. Esophageal (Tes) and local skin temperatures and local sweat rate (LSR) on the forehead and upper back were measured throughout.RESULTS: Change in Tes was greatest in TP (1.86°C ± 0.32°C vs 0.29°C ± 0.07°C, P < 0.001) and greater in HP compared with LP and AB, reaching 1.20°C ± 0.50°C, 0.66°C ± 0.23°C, and 0.53°C ± 0.12°C, respectively (P < 0.001). Approximately half of the variability in end-trial ΔTes was described by SCI level in paraplegics (adjusted R = 0.490, P = 0.005). Esophageal temperature onset thresholds of sweating at the forehead and upper back were similar among HP, LP, and AB, whereas no sweating was observed in TP. Thermosensitivity (ΔTes vs ΔLSR) was also similar, except for LP demonstrating lower thermosensitivity than AB at the upper back (0.78 ± 0.26 vs 1.59 ± 0.89 mg·cm·min, P = 0.039). Change in skin temperature was greatest in denervated regions, most notably at the calf in all SCI groups (TP, 2.07°C ± 0.93°C; HP, 2.73°C ± 0.68°C; LP, 2.92°C ± 1.48°C).CONCLUSION: This study is the first to show the relationship between ΔTes and SCI level in athletes with paraplegia after removing variability arising from differences in metabolic heat production and mass. Individual variability in ΔTes is further reduced among athletes with TP because of minimal evaporative heat loss secondary to an absence of sweating.",
keywords = "body temperature regulation, core temperature, hyperthermia, paraplegia, sweating, tetraplegia",
author = "Peta Forsyth and Joanna Miller and Kate Pumpa and Thompson, {Kevin G.} and Ollie Jay",
year = "2019",
month = "8",
language = "English",
volume = "51",
pages = "1710--1719",
journal = "Medicine Science in Sports Exercise",
issn = "0195-9131",
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}

Independent Influence of Spinal Cord Injury Level on Thermoregulation during Exercise. / Forsyth, Peta; Miller, Joanna; Pumpa, Kate; Thompson, Kevin G.; Jay, Ollie.

In: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, Vol. 51, No. 8, 08.2019, p. 1710-1719.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Independent Influence of Spinal Cord Injury Level on Thermoregulation during Exercise

AU - Forsyth, Peta

AU - Miller, Joanna

AU - Pumpa, Kate

AU - Thompson, Kevin G.

AU - Jay, Ollie

PY - 2019/8

Y1 - 2019/8

N2 - PURPOSE: This study aimed to establish the true influence of spinal cord injury (SCI) level on core temperature and sweating during exercise in the heat independently of biophysical factors.METHODS: A total of 31 trained males (8 with tetraplegia [TP; C5-C8], 7 with high paraplegia [HP; T1-T5], 8 with low paraplegia [LP; T6-L1], and 8 able bodied [AB]) performed 3 × 10 min of arm ergometry with 3-min rest at a metabolic heat production of (a) 4.0 W·kg (AB vs TP) or (b) 6.0 W·kg (AB vs HP vs LP), in 35°C, 50% relative humidity. Esophageal (Tes) and local skin temperatures and local sweat rate (LSR) on the forehead and upper back were measured throughout.RESULTS: Change in Tes was greatest in TP (1.86°C ± 0.32°C vs 0.29°C ± 0.07°C, P < 0.001) and greater in HP compared with LP and AB, reaching 1.20°C ± 0.50°C, 0.66°C ± 0.23°C, and 0.53°C ± 0.12°C, respectively (P < 0.001). Approximately half of the variability in end-trial ΔTes was described by SCI level in paraplegics (adjusted R = 0.490, P = 0.005). Esophageal temperature onset thresholds of sweating at the forehead and upper back were similar among HP, LP, and AB, whereas no sweating was observed in TP. Thermosensitivity (ΔTes vs ΔLSR) was also similar, except for LP demonstrating lower thermosensitivity than AB at the upper back (0.78 ± 0.26 vs 1.59 ± 0.89 mg·cm·min, P = 0.039). Change in skin temperature was greatest in denervated regions, most notably at the calf in all SCI groups (TP, 2.07°C ± 0.93°C; HP, 2.73°C ± 0.68°C; LP, 2.92°C ± 1.48°C).CONCLUSION: This study is the first to show the relationship between ΔTes and SCI level in athletes with paraplegia after removing variability arising from differences in metabolic heat production and mass. Individual variability in ΔTes is further reduced among athletes with TP because of minimal evaporative heat loss secondary to an absence of sweating.

AB - PURPOSE: This study aimed to establish the true influence of spinal cord injury (SCI) level on core temperature and sweating during exercise in the heat independently of biophysical factors.METHODS: A total of 31 trained males (8 with tetraplegia [TP; C5-C8], 7 with high paraplegia [HP; T1-T5], 8 with low paraplegia [LP; T6-L1], and 8 able bodied [AB]) performed 3 × 10 min of arm ergometry with 3-min rest at a metabolic heat production of (a) 4.0 W·kg (AB vs TP) or (b) 6.0 W·kg (AB vs HP vs LP), in 35°C, 50% relative humidity. Esophageal (Tes) and local skin temperatures and local sweat rate (LSR) on the forehead and upper back were measured throughout.RESULTS: Change in Tes was greatest in TP (1.86°C ± 0.32°C vs 0.29°C ± 0.07°C, P < 0.001) and greater in HP compared with LP and AB, reaching 1.20°C ± 0.50°C, 0.66°C ± 0.23°C, and 0.53°C ± 0.12°C, respectively (P < 0.001). Approximately half of the variability in end-trial ΔTes was described by SCI level in paraplegics (adjusted R = 0.490, P = 0.005). Esophageal temperature onset thresholds of sweating at the forehead and upper back were similar among HP, LP, and AB, whereas no sweating was observed in TP. Thermosensitivity (ΔTes vs ΔLSR) was also similar, except for LP demonstrating lower thermosensitivity than AB at the upper back (0.78 ± 0.26 vs 1.59 ± 0.89 mg·cm·min, P = 0.039). Change in skin temperature was greatest in denervated regions, most notably at the calf in all SCI groups (TP, 2.07°C ± 0.93°C; HP, 2.73°C ± 0.68°C; LP, 2.92°C ± 1.48°C).CONCLUSION: This study is the first to show the relationship between ΔTes and SCI level in athletes with paraplegia after removing variability arising from differences in metabolic heat production and mass. Individual variability in ΔTes is further reduced among athletes with TP because of minimal evaporative heat loss secondary to an absence of sweating.

KW - body temperature regulation

KW - core temperature

KW - hyperthermia

KW - paraplegia

KW - sweating

KW - tetraplegia

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UR - https://journals.lww.com/acsm-msse/fulltext/2019/08000/Independent_Influence_of_Spinal_Cord_Injury_Level.18.aspx

M3 - Article

VL - 51

SP - 1710

EP - 1719

JO - Medicine Science in Sports Exercise

JF - Medicine Science in Sports Exercise

SN - 0195-9131

IS - 8

ER -