Intake and contribution of food groups to vitamin D intake in a representative sample of adult Greek population

Ioannis Dimakopoulos, Emmanuella Magriplis, Anastasia Vasiliki Mitsopoulou, Dimitra Karageorgou, Ioanna Bakogianni, Renata Micha, George Michas, Michail Chourdakis, George P. Chrousos, Eleftheria Roma, Demosthenes B. Panagiotakos, Antonis Zampelas

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Citations (Scopus)


Objectives: Globally, vitamin D intake from food and supplements is low, consistent with the high prevalence of low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration. The aims of this study were to assess vitamin D intake and major relevant food contributors among Greek adults and to propose subsequent policies for intervention. Methods: Vitamin D from diet and supplements was estimated in adults (≥19 y of age) from two 24-h recalls using the Automated Multiple-Pass Method (vitamin D from food intake) and a drug and supplement questionnaire (vitamin D supplements). Over- and underreporters were identified using the Goldberg cutoff. The final analysis included 2218 individuals. The National Research Council method was used to account for within- and between-person variation. Vitamin D food intake adequacy was estimated based on the estimated average requirement (EAR) of 10 mcg/d, set by the Institute of Medicine. Major foods contributing to intake were identified and the effect on meeting EAR, of a potential food fortification example was examined. Results: Median vitamin D intake from food ranged from 1.16 to 1.72 and 1.01 to 1.26mcg/d in different age groups in men and women, respectively. Major food sources of vitamin D were fish (46%), meat (15%), and cereals (12%); however, >90% of the population in all age groups failed to meet the EAR, even when supplemental use was accounted for (~5% of the population consumed supplements). Conclusion: Overall vitamin D intake is below the average requirements. Public health policies to increase the consumption of foods high in vitamin D or food fortification may significantly reduce the percentage of individuals who do not meet the recommendations.

Original languageEnglish
Article number110641
Pages (from-to)1-9
Number of pages9
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2020
Externally publishedYes


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