International comparisons of the associations between objective measures of the built environment and transport-related walking and cycling: IPEN adult study

Lars Christiansen, Ester Cerin, Hannah Badland, Jacqueline Kerr, Rachel DAVEY, Jens Troelsen, Delfien Van Dyck, Josef Mitáš, Grant Schofield, Takemi Sugiyama, Deborah Salvo, Olga Sarmiento, Rodrigo Reis, Marc Adams, Lawrence Frank, James Sallis

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    Abstract

    Introduction
    Mounting evidence documents the importance of urban form for active travel, but international studies could strengthen the evidence. The aim of the study was to document the strength, shape, and generalizability of relations of objectively measured built environment variables with transport-related walking and cycling.

    Methods
    This cross-sectional study maximized variation of environments and demographics by including multiple countries and by selecting adult participants living in neighborhoods based on higher and lower classifications of objectively measured walkability and socioeconomic status. Analyses were conducted on 12,181 adults aged 18–66 years, drawn from 14 cities across 10 countries worldwide. Frequency of transport-related walking and cycling over the last seven days was assessed by questionnaire and four objectively measured built environment variables were calculated. Associations of built environment variables with transport-related walking and cycling variables were estimated using generalized additive mixed models, and were tested for curvilinearity and study site moderation.

    Results
    We found positive associations of walking for transport with all the environmental attributes, but also found that the relationships was only linear for land use mix, but not for residential density, intersection density, and the number of parks. Our findings suggest that there may be optimum values in these attributes, beyond which higher densities or number of parks could have minor or even negative impact. Cycling for transport was associated linearly with residential density, intersection density (only for any cycling), and land use mix, but not with the number of parks.

    Conclusion
    Across 14 diverse cities and countries, living in more densely populated areas, having a well-connected street network, more diverse land uses, and having more parks were positively associated with transport-related walking and/or cycling. Except for land-use-mix, all built environment variables had curvilinear relationships with walking, with a plateau in the relationship at higher levels of the scales
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)467-478
    Number of pages12
    JournalJournal of Transport and Health
    Volume3
    Issue number4
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2016

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    international comparison
    Land use
    Walking
    land use
    residential density
    cross-sectional study
    evidence
    social status
    Social Class
    travel
    Cross-Sectional Studies
    Demography
    questionnaire
    Values

    Cite this

    Christiansen, Lars ; Cerin, Ester ; Badland, Hannah ; Kerr, Jacqueline ; DAVEY, Rachel ; Troelsen, Jens ; Van Dyck, Delfien ; Mitáš, Josef ; Schofield, Grant ; Sugiyama, Takemi ; Salvo, Deborah ; Sarmiento, Olga ; Reis, Rodrigo ; Adams, Marc ; Frank, Lawrence ; Sallis, James. / International comparisons of the associations between objective measures of the built environment and transport-related walking and cycling: IPEN adult study. In: Journal of Transport and Health. 2016 ; Vol. 3, No. 4. pp. 467-478.
    @article{6f735cb1f61147f98c4763c7cf7138b0,
    title = "International comparisons of the associations between objective measures of the built environment and transport-related walking and cycling: IPEN adult study",
    abstract = "IntroductionMounting evidence documents the importance of urban form for active travel, but international studies could strengthen the evidence. The aim of the study was to document the strength, shape, and generalizability of relations of objectively measured built environment variables with transport-related walking and cycling.MethodsThis cross-sectional study maximized variation of environments and demographics by including multiple countries and by selecting adult participants living in neighborhoods based on higher and lower classifications of objectively measured walkability and socioeconomic status. Analyses were conducted on 12,181 adults aged 18–66 years, drawn from 14 cities across 10 countries worldwide. Frequency of transport-related walking and cycling over the last seven days was assessed by questionnaire and four objectively measured built environment variables were calculated. Associations of built environment variables with transport-related walking and cycling variables were estimated using generalized additive mixed models, and were tested for curvilinearity and study site moderation.ResultsWe found positive associations of walking for transport with all the environmental attributes, but also found that the relationships was only linear for land use mix, but not for residential density, intersection density, and the number of parks. Our findings suggest that there may be optimum values in these attributes, beyond which higher densities or number of parks could have minor or even negative impact. Cycling for transport was associated linearly with residential density, intersection density (only for any cycling), and land use mix, but not with the number of parks.ConclusionAcross 14 diverse cities and countries, living in more densely populated areas, having a well-connected street network, more diverse land uses, and having more parks were positively associated with transport-related walking and/or cycling. Except for land-use-mix, all built environment variables had curvilinear relationships with walking, with a plateau in the relationship at higher levels of the scales",
    keywords = "Built environment, Cycling, IPEN, International, Transport, Walking",
    author = "Lars Christiansen and Ester Cerin and Hannah Badland and Jacqueline Kerr and Rachel DAVEY and Jens Troelsen and {Van Dyck}, Delfien and Josef Mit{\'a}š and Grant Schofield and Takemi Sugiyama and Deborah Salvo and Olga Sarmiento and Rodrigo Reis and Marc Adams and Lawrence Frank and James Sallis",
    year = "2016",
    doi = "10.1016/j.jth.2016.02.010",
    language = "English",
    volume = "3",
    pages = "467--478",
    journal = "Journal of Transport and Health",
    issn = "2214-1405",
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    }

    Christiansen, L, Cerin, E, Badland, H, Kerr, J, DAVEY, R, Troelsen, J, Van Dyck, D, Mitáš, J, Schofield, G, Sugiyama, T, Salvo, D, Sarmiento, O, Reis, R, Adams, M, Frank, L & Sallis, J 2016, 'International comparisons of the associations between objective measures of the built environment and transport-related walking and cycling: IPEN adult study', Journal of Transport and Health, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 467-478. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jth.2016.02.010

    International comparisons of the associations between objective measures of the built environment and transport-related walking and cycling: IPEN adult study. / Christiansen, Lars; Cerin, Ester; Badland, Hannah; Kerr, Jacqueline; DAVEY, Rachel; Troelsen, Jens; Van Dyck, Delfien; Mitáš, Josef; Schofield, Grant; Sugiyama, Takemi; Salvo, Deborah; Sarmiento, Olga; Reis, Rodrigo; Adams, Marc; Frank, Lawrence; Sallis, James.

    In: Journal of Transport and Health, Vol. 3, No. 4, 2016, p. 467-478.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - International comparisons of the associations between objective measures of the built environment and transport-related walking and cycling: IPEN adult study

    AU - Christiansen, Lars

    AU - Cerin, Ester

    AU - Badland, Hannah

    AU - Kerr, Jacqueline

    AU - DAVEY, Rachel

    AU - Troelsen, Jens

    AU - Van Dyck, Delfien

    AU - Mitáš, Josef

    AU - Schofield, Grant

    AU - Sugiyama, Takemi

    AU - Salvo, Deborah

    AU - Sarmiento, Olga

    AU - Reis, Rodrigo

    AU - Adams, Marc

    AU - Frank, Lawrence

    AU - Sallis, James

    PY - 2016

    Y1 - 2016

    N2 - IntroductionMounting evidence documents the importance of urban form for active travel, but international studies could strengthen the evidence. The aim of the study was to document the strength, shape, and generalizability of relations of objectively measured built environment variables with transport-related walking and cycling.MethodsThis cross-sectional study maximized variation of environments and demographics by including multiple countries and by selecting adult participants living in neighborhoods based on higher and lower classifications of objectively measured walkability and socioeconomic status. Analyses were conducted on 12,181 adults aged 18–66 years, drawn from 14 cities across 10 countries worldwide. Frequency of transport-related walking and cycling over the last seven days was assessed by questionnaire and four objectively measured built environment variables were calculated. Associations of built environment variables with transport-related walking and cycling variables were estimated using generalized additive mixed models, and were tested for curvilinearity and study site moderation.ResultsWe found positive associations of walking for transport with all the environmental attributes, but also found that the relationships was only linear for land use mix, but not for residential density, intersection density, and the number of parks. Our findings suggest that there may be optimum values in these attributes, beyond which higher densities or number of parks could have minor or even negative impact. Cycling for transport was associated linearly with residential density, intersection density (only for any cycling), and land use mix, but not with the number of parks.ConclusionAcross 14 diverse cities and countries, living in more densely populated areas, having a well-connected street network, more diverse land uses, and having more parks were positively associated with transport-related walking and/or cycling. Except for land-use-mix, all built environment variables had curvilinear relationships with walking, with a plateau in the relationship at higher levels of the scales

    AB - IntroductionMounting evidence documents the importance of urban form for active travel, but international studies could strengthen the evidence. The aim of the study was to document the strength, shape, and generalizability of relations of objectively measured built environment variables with transport-related walking and cycling.MethodsThis cross-sectional study maximized variation of environments and demographics by including multiple countries and by selecting adult participants living in neighborhoods based on higher and lower classifications of objectively measured walkability and socioeconomic status. Analyses were conducted on 12,181 adults aged 18–66 years, drawn from 14 cities across 10 countries worldwide. Frequency of transport-related walking and cycling over the last seven days was assessed by questionnaire and four objectively measured built environment variables were calculated. Associations of built environment variables with transport-related walking and cycling variables were estimated using generalized additive mixed models, and were tested for curvilinearity and study site moderation.ResultsWe found positive associations of walking for transport with all the environmental attributes, but also found that the relationships was only linear for land use mix, but not for residential density, intersection density, and the number of parks. Our findings suggest that there may be optimum values in these attributes, beyond which higher densities or number of parks could have minor or even negative impact. Cycling for transport was associated linearly with residential density, intersection density (only for any cycling), and land use mix, but not with the number of parks.ConclusionAcross 14 diverse cities and countries, living in more densely populated areas, having a well-connected street network, more diverse land uses, and having more parks were positively associated with transport-related walking and/or cycling. Except for land-use-mix, all built environment variables had curvilinear relationships with walking, with a plateau in the relationship at higher levels of the scales

    KW - Built environment

    KW - Cycling

    KW - IPEN

    KW - International

    KW - Transport

    KW - Walking

    UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84962138893&partnerID=8YFLogxK

    UR - http://www.mendeley.com/research/international-comparisons-associations-between-objective-measures-built-environment-transportrelated

    U2 - 10.1016/j.jth.2016.02.010

    DO - 10.1016/j.jth.2016.02.010

    M3 - Article

    VL - 3

    SP - 467

    EP - 478

    JO - Journal of Transport and Health

    JF - Journal of Transport and Health

    SN - 2214-1405

    IS - 4

    ER -