International Society of Sports Nutrition Position Stand

Nutritional considerations for single-stage ultra-marathon training and racing

Ralf Jäger, Alex E Mohr, Katie C Carpenter, Chad M Kerksick, Martin Purpura, Adel Moussa, Jeremy R Townsend, Manfred Lamprecht, Nicholas P West, Katherine Black, Michael Gleeson, David B Pyne, Shawn D Wells, Shawn M Arent, Abbie E Smith-Ryan, Richard B Kreider, Bill I Campbell, Laurent Bannock, Jonathan Scheiman, Craig J Wissent & 5 others Marco Pane, Douglas S Kalman, Jamie N Pugh, Jessica A Ter Haar, Jose Antonio

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

1 Citation (Scopus)
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Abstract

Background In this Position Statement, the International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) provides an objective and critical review of the literature pertinent to nutritional considerations for training and racing in single-stage ultra-marathon. Recommendations for Training. i) Ultra-marathon runners should aim to meet the caloric demands of training by following an individualized and periodized strategy, comprising a varied, food-first approach; ii) Athletes should plan and implement their nutrition strategy with sufficient time to permit adaptations that enhance fat oxidative capacity; iii) The evidence overwhelmingly supports the inclusion of a moderate-To-high carbohydrate diet (i.e., ~ 60% of energy intake, 5-8 g·kg -1·d -1) to mitigate the negative effects of chronic, training-induced glycogen depletion; iv) Limiting carbohydrate intake before selected low-intensity sessions, and/or moderating daily carbohydrate intake, may enhance mitochondrial function and fat oxidative capacity. Nevertheless, this approach may compromise performance during high-intensity efforts; v) Protein intakes of ~ 1.6 g·kg -1·d -1 are necessary to maintain lean mass and support recovery from training, but amounts up to 2.5 g.kg -1·d -1 may be warranted during demanding training when calorie requirements are greater; Recommendations for Racing. vi) To attenuate caloric deficits, runners should aim to consume 150-400 Kcal·h -1 (carbohydrate, 30-50 g·h -1; protein, 5-10 g·h -1) from a variety of calorie-dense foods. Consideration must be given to food palatability, individual tolerance, and the increased preference for savory foods in longer races; vii) Fluid volumes of 450-750 mL·h -1 (~ 150-250 mL every 20 min) are recommended during racing. To minimize the likelihood of hyponatraemia, electrolytes (mainly sodium) may be needed in concentrations greater than that provided by most commercial products (i.e., > 575 mg·L -1 sodium). Fluid and electrolyte requirements will be elevated when running in hot and/or humid conditions; viii) Evidence supports progressive gut-Training and/or low-FODMAP diets (fermentable oligosaccharide, disaccharide, monosaccharide and polyol) to alleviate symptoms of gastrointestinal distress during racing; ix) The evidence in support of ketogenic diets and/or ketone esters to improve ultra-marathon performance is lacking, with further research warranted; x) Evidence supports the strategic use of caffeine to sustain performance in the latter stages of racing, particularly when sleep deprivation may compromise athlete safety.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-23
Number of pages23
JournalJournal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
Volume16
Issue number50
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 21 Dec 2019

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sports nutrition
carbohydrate intake
athletes
electrolytes
Sports
Carbohydrates
sodium
hyponatremia
savory
high carbohydrate diet
polyols
disaccharides
monosaccharides
palatability
lipids
distress
caffeine
ketones
protein intake
energy requirements

Cite this

Jäger, Ralf ; Mohr, Alex E ; Carpenter, Katie C ; Kerksick, Chad M ; Purpura, Martin ; Moussa, Adel ; Townsend, Jeremy R ; Lamprecht, Manfred ; West, Nicholas P ; Black, Katherine ; Gleeson, Michael ; Pyne, David B ; Wells, Shawn D ; Arent, Shawn M ; Smith-Ryan, Abbie E ; Kreider, Richard B ; Campbell, Bill I ; Bannock, Laurent ; Scheiman, Jonathan ; Wissent, Craig J ; Pane, Marco ; Kalman, Douglas S ; Pugh, Jamie N ; Ter Haar, Jessica A ; Antonio, Jose. / International Society of Sports Nutrition Position Stand : Nutritional considerations for single-stage ultra-marathon training and racing. In: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. 2019 ; Vol. 16, No. 50. pp. 1-23.
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abstract = "Background In this Position Statement, the International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) provides an objective and critical review of the literature pertinent to nutritional considerations for training and racing in single-stage ultra-marathon. Recommendations for Training. i) Ultra-marathon runners should aim to meet the caloric demands of training by following an individualized and periodized strategy, comprising a varied, food-first approach; ii) Athletes should plan and implement their nutrition strategy with sufficient time to permit adaptations that enhance fat oxidative capacity; iii) The evidence overwhelmingly supports the inclusion of a moderate-To-high carbohydrate diet (i.e., ~ 60{\%} of energy intake, 5-8 g·kg -1·d -1) to mitigate the negative effects of chronic, training-induced glycogen depletion; iv) Limiting carbohydrate intake before selected low-intensity sessions, and/or moderating daily carbohydrate intake, may enhance mitochondrial function and fat oxidative capacity. Nevertheless, this approach may compromise performance during high-intensity efforts; v) Protein intakes of ~ 1.6 g·kg -1·d -1 are necessary to maintain lean mass and support recovery from training, but amounts up to 2.5 g.kg -1·d -1 may be warranted during demanding training when calorie requirements are greater; Recommendations for Racing. vi) To attenuate caloric deficits, runners should aim to consume 150-400 Kcal·h -1 (carbohydrate, 30-50 g·h -1; protein, 5-10 g·h -1) from a variety of calorie-dense foods. Consideration must be given to food palatability, individual tolerance, and the increased preference for savory foods in longer races; vii) Fluid volumes of 450-750 mL·h -1 (~ 150-250 mL every 20 min) are recommended during racing. To minimize the likelihood of hyponatraemia, electrolytes (mainly sodium) may be needed in concentrations greater than that provided by most commercial products (i.e., > 575 mg·L -1 sodium). Fluid and electrolyte requirements will be elevated when running in hot and/or humid conditions; viii) Evidence supports progressive gut-Training and/or low-FODMAP diets (fermentable oligosaccharide, disaccharide, monosaccharide and polyol) to alleviate symptoms of gastrointestinal distress during racing; ix) The evidence in support of ketogenic diets and/or ketone esters to improve ultra-marathon performance is lacking, with further research warranted; x) Evidence supports the strategic use of caffeine to sustain performance in the latter stages of racing, particularly when sleep deprivation may compromise athlete safety.",
keywords = "Endurance, Nutrition, Performance, Racing, Supplementation, Training, Ultra-marathon",
author = "Ralf J{\"a}ger and Mohr, {Alex E} and Carpenter, {Katie C} and Kerksick, {Chad M} and Martin Purpura and Adel Moussa and Townsend, {Jeremy R} and Manfred Lamprecht and West, {Nicholas P} and Katherine Black and Michael Gleeson and Pyne, {David B} and Wells, {Shawn D} and Arent, {Shawn M} and Smith-Ryan, {Abbie E} and Kreider, {Richard B} and Campbell, {Bill I} and Laurent Bannock and Jonathan Scheiman and Wissent, {Craig J} and Marco Pane and Kalman, {Douglas S} and Pugh, {Jamie N} and {Ter Haar}, {Jessica A} and Jose Antonio",
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Jäger, R, Mohr, AE, Carpenter, KC, Kerksick, CM, Purpura, M, Moussa, A, Townsend, JR, Lamprecht, M, West, NP, Black, K, Gleeson, M, Pyne, DB, Wells, SD, Arent, SM, Smith-Ryan, AE, Kreider, RB, Campbell, BI, Bannock, L, Scheiman, J, Wissent, CJ, Pane, M, Kalman, DS, Pugh, JN, Ter Haar, JA & Antonio, J 2019, 'International Society of Sports Nutrition Position Stand: Nutritional considerations for single-stage ultra-marathon training and racing', Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, vol. 16, no. 50, pp. 1-23. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12970-019-0312-9

International Society of Sports Nutrition Position Stand : Nutritional considerations for single-stage ultra-marathon training and racing. / Jäger, Ralf; Mohr, Alex E; Carpenter, Katie C; Kerksick, Chad M; Purpura, Martin; Moussa, Adel; Townsend, Jeremy R; Lamprecht, Manfred; West, Nicholas P; Black, Katherine; Gleeson, Michael; Pyne, David B; Wells, Shawn D; Arent, Shawn M; Smith-Ryan, Abbie E; Kreider, Richard B; Campbell, Bill I; Bannock, Laurent; Scheiman, Jonathan; Wissent, Craig J; Pane, Marco; Kalman, Douglas S; Pugh, Jamie N; Ter Haar, Jessica A; Antonio, Jose.

In: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, Vol. 16, No. 50, 21.12.2019, p. 1-23.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

TY - JOUR

T1 - International Society of Sports Nutrition Position Stand

T2 - Nutritional considerations for single-stage ultra-marathon training and racing

AU - Jäger, Ralf

AU - Mohr, Alex E

AU - Carpenter, Katie C

AU - Kerksick, Chad M

AU - Purpura, Martin

AU - Moussa, Adel

AU - Townsend, Jeremy R

AU - Lamprecht, Manfred

AU - West, Nicholas P

AU - Black, Katherine

AU - Gleeson, Michael

AU - Pyne, David B

AU - Wells, Shawn D

AU - Arent, Shawn M

AU - Smith-Ryan, Abbie E

AU - Kreider, Richard B

AU - Campbell, Bill I

AU - Bannock, Laurent

AU - Scheiman, Jonathan

AU - Wissent, Craig J

AU - Pane, Marco

AU - Kalman, Douglas S

AU - Pugh, Jamie N

AU - Ter Haar, Jessica A

AU - Antonio, Jose

PY - 2019/12/21

Y1 - 2019/12/21

N2 - Background In this Position Statement, the International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) provides an objective and critical review of the literature pertinent to nutritional considerations for training and racing in single-stage ultra-marathon. Recommendations for Training. i) Ultra-marathon runners should aim to meet the caloric demands of training by following an individualized and periodized strategy, comprising a varied, food-first approach; ii) Athletes should plan and implement their nutrition strategy with sufficient time to permit adaptations that enhance fat oxidative capacity; iii) The evidence overwhelmingly supports the inclusion of a moderate-To-high carbohydrate diet (i.e., ~ 60% of energy intake, 5-8 g·kg -1·d -1) to mitigate the negative effects of chronic, training-induced glycogen depletion; iv) Limiting carbohydrate intake before selected low-intensity sessions, and/or moderating daily carbohydrate intake, may enhance mitochondrial function and fat oxidative capacity. Nevertheless, this approach may compromise performance during high-intensity efforts; v) Protein intakes of ~ 1.6 g·kg -1·d -1 are necessary to maintain lean mass and support recovery from training, but amounts up to 2.5 g.kg -1·d -1 may be warranted during demanding training when calorie requirements are greater; Recommendations for Racing. vi) To attenuate caloric deficits, runners should aim to consume 150-400 Kcal·h -1 (carbohydrate, 30-50 g·h -1; protein, 5-10 g·h -1) from a variety of calorie-dense foods. Consideration must be given to food palatability, individual tolerance, and the increased preference for savory foods in longer races; vii) Fluid volumes of 450-750 mL·h -1 (~ 150-250 mL every 20 min) are recommended during racing. To minimize the likelihood of hyponatraemia, electrolytes (mainly sodium) may be needed in concentrations greater than that provided by most commercial products (i.e., > 575 mg·L -1 sodium). Fluid and electrolyte requirements will be elevated when running in hot and/or humid conditions; viii) Evidence supports progressive gut-Training and/or low-FODMAP diets (fermentable oligosaccharide, disaccharide, monosaccharide and polyol) to alleviate symptoms of gastrointestinal distress during racing; ix) The evidence in support of ketogenic diets and/or ketone esters to improve ultra-marathon performance is lacking, with further research warranted; x) Evidence supports the strategic use of caffeine to sustain performance in the latter stages of racing, particularly when sleep deprivation may compromise athlete safety.

AB - Background In this Position Statement, the International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) provides an objective and critical review of the literature pertinent to nutritional considerations for training and racing in single-stage ultra-marathon. Recommendations for Training. i) Ultra-marathon runners should aim to meet the caloric demands of training by following an individualized and periodized strategy, comprising a varied, food-first approach; ii) Athletes should plan and implement their nutrition strategy with sufficient time to permit adaptations that enhance fat oxidative capacity; iii) The evidence overwhelmingly supports the inclusion of a moderate-To-high carbohydrate diet (i.e., ~ 60% of energy intake, 5-8 g·kg -1·d -1) to mitigate the negative effects of chronic, training-induced glycogen depletion; iv) Limiting carbohydrate intake before selected low-intensity sessions, and/or moderating daily carbohydrate intake, may enhance mitochondrial function and fat oxidative capacity. Nevertheless, this approach may compromise performance during high-intensity efforts; v) Protein intakes of ~ 1.6 g·kg -1·d -1 are necessary to maintain lean mass and support recovery from training, but amounts up to 2.5 g.kg -1·d -1 may be warranted during demanding training when calorie requirements are greater; Recommendations for Racing. vi) To attenuate caloric deficits, runners should aim to consume 150-400 Kcal·h -1 (carbohydrate, 30-50 g·h -1; protein, 5-10 g·h -1) from a variety of calorie-dense foods. Consideration must be given to food palatability, individual tolerance, and the increased preference for savory foods in longer races; vii) Fluid volumes of 450-750 mL·h -1 (~ 150-250 mL every 20 min) are recommended during racing. To minimize the likelihood of hyponatraemia, electrolytes (mainly sodium) may be needed in concentrations greater than that provided by most commercial products (i.e., > 575 mg·L -1 sodium). Fluid and electrolyte requirements will be elevated when running in hot and/or humid conditions; viii) Evidence supports progressive gut-Training and/or low-FODMAP diets (fermentable oligosaccharide, disaccharide, monosaccharide and polyol) to alleviate symptoms of gastrointestinal distress during racing; ix) The evidence in support of ketogenic diets and/or ketone esters to improve ultra-marathon performance is lacking, with further research warranted; x) Evidence supports the strategic use of caffeine to sustain performance in the latter stages of racing, particularly when sleep deprivation may compromise athlete safety.

KW - Endurance

KW - Nutrition

KW - Performance

KW - Racing

KW - Supplementation

KW - Training

KW - Ultra-marathon

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UR - http://www.mendeley.com/research/international-society-sports-nutrition-position-stand-nutritional-considerations-singlestage-ultrama

U2 - 10.1186/s12970-019-0312-9

DO - 10.1186/s12970-019-0312-9

M3 - Review article

VL - 16

SP - 1

EP - 23

JO - Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition

JF - Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition

SN - 1550-2783

IS - 50

ER -