Despite growing scientific consensus that agriculture is affected by climate change and variability, there is still limited knowledge on how agricultural systems respond to climate risks under different circumstances. Drawing on three case studies conducted in the Indo-Gangetic Plains, covering Nepal, Bangladesh, and the Indian state of Punjab, this article analyzes agricultural adaptation practices to climate change. In particular, we examine how farmers and other agricultural actors understand and respond to climate change. We identify a variety of adaptation practices related to changes in cropping system, technological innovations, and institutional changes. We also explore key challenges related to such emerging adaptive innovation processes in the region.