Gynogenetically produced XX and YY Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and diploid control groups were screened for amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) to search for sex-linked or sex-specific markers. Family-level bulked segregant analysis (XX and YY gynogenetic family pools) and individual screening (XX and YY gynogenetics and XX and XY control individuals) identified 3 Y-linked (OniY425, OniY382, OniY227) and one X-linked (OniX420) AFLP markers. OniX420 and OniY425 were shown to be allelic. Single locus polymerase chain reaction assays were developed for these markers. Tight linkage was demonstrated between the AFLP markers and the sex locus within the source families. However, these markers failed to consistently identify sex in unrelated individuals, indicating recombination between the markers and the sex-determining loci. O. niloticus bacterial artificial chromosome clones, containing the AFLP markers, hybridized to the long arm of chromosome 1. This confirmed previous evidence, based on meiotic chromosome pairing and fluorescence in situ hybridization probes obtained through chromosome microdissection, that chromosome pair 1 is the sex chromosomes.