Karyological characterization of the butterfly lizard (Leiolepis reevesii rubritaeniata) was performed by conventional Giemsa staining, Ag-NOR banding, FISH with the 18S-28S and 5S rRNA genes and telomeric (TTAGGG)n sequences, and CGH. The karyotype was composed of 2 distinct components, macrochromosomes and microchromosomes, and the chromosomal constitution was 2n = 2x = 36 (L4m + L2sm + M2m + S4m + 24 microchromosomes). NORs and the 18S-28S rRNA genes were located at the secondary constriction of the long arm of chromosome 1, and the 5S rRNA genes were localized to the pericentromeric region of chromosome 6. Hybridization signals of (TTAGGG)n sequences were observed at the telomeric ends of all chromosomes and interstitially at the same position as the 18S-28S rRNA genes, suggesting that in the Leiolepinae tandem fusion probably occurred between chromosome 1 and a microchromosome where the 18S-28S rRNA genes were located. CGH analysis, however, failed to identify sex chromosomes, suggesting that this species may have a TSD system or exhibit GSD with morphologically undetectable cryptic sex chromosomes. Homologues of 6 chicken Z-linked genes (ACO1/IREBP, ATP5A1, CHD1, DMRT1, GHR, RPS6) were all mapped to chromosome 2p in the same order as on the snake chromosome 2p.