Aim: To assess if latent autoimmune diabetes of adulthood (LADA) is associated with small fibre neuropathy. Methods: Participants with LADA (n=31), Type 2 diabetes (n=31) and healthy control participants without diabetes (n=31) underwent a detailed assessment of neurologic deficits, quantitative sensory testing, electrophysiology, skin biopsy and corneal confocal microscopy. Results: The groups were matched for age (healthy control without diabetes: 53.5±9.1 vs. Type 2 diabetes: 58.0±6.5 vs. LADA: 53.2±11.6 years), duration of diabetes (Type 2 diabetes: 10.0±8.3 vs. LADA: 11.0±9.1 years) and blood pressure. However, BMI (P=0.01) and triglycerides (P=0.0008) were lower and HbA1c (P=0.0005), total cholesterol (P=0.01) and HDL (P=0.002) were higher in participants with LADA compared with Type 2 diabetes. Peroneal motor nerve conduction velocity (P=0.04) and sural sensory nerve conduction velocity (P=0.008) were lower in participants with latent autoimmune diabetes in adults compared with Type 2 diabetes. Intra-epidermal nerve fibre density (P=0.008), corneal nerve fibre density (P=0.003) and corneal nerve branch density (P=0.006) were significantly lower in participants with LADA compared with Type 2 diabetes. There were no significant differences in the other neuropathy parameters. Conclusions: Despite comparable age and duration of diabetes, participants with LADA demonstrate more severe neuropathy and particularly small fibre neuropathy, compared with participants with Type 2 diabetes.