Low-glycemic index diets as an intervention for diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Mohammad Ishraq Zafar, Kerry E. Mills, Juan Zheng, Anita Regmi, Sheng Qing Hu, Luoning Gou, Lu Lu Chen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Low-glycemic index (GI) diets are thought to reduce postprandial glycemia, resulting in more stable blood glucose concentrations. Objecitve: We hypothesized that low-GI diets would be superior to other diet types in lowering measures of blood glucose control in people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes, or impaired glucose tolerance. Methods: We searched PubMed, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and clinical trials registries for published and unpublished studies up until 1 March, 2019. We included 54 randomized controlled trials in adults or children with impaired glucose tolerance, type 1 diabetes, or type 2 diabetes. Continuous data were synthesized using a random effects, inverse variance model, and presented as standardized mean differences with 95% CIs. Results: Low-GI diets were effective at reducing glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting glucose, BMI, total cholesterol, and LDL, but had no effect on fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, HDL, triglycerides, or insulin requirements. The reduction in fasting glucose and HbA1c was inversely correlated with body weight. The greatest reduction in fasting blood glucose was seen in the studies of the longest duration. Conclusions: Low-GI diets may be useful for glycemic control and may reduce body weight in people with prediabetes or diabetes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)891-902
Number of pages12
JournalThe American journal of clinical nutrition
Volume110
Issue number4
Early online date2 Aug 2019
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2019

Fingerprint

Glycemic Index
Meta-Analysis
Diet
Fasting
Blood Glucose
Glucose Intolerance
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Body Weight
Insulin
Prediabetic State
Glucose
Glycosylated Hemoglobin A
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
PubMed
LDL Cholesterol
Libraries
Registries
Triglycerides
Randomized Controlled Trials
Clinical Trials

Cite this

Zafar, Mohammad Ishraq ; Mills, Kerry E. ; Zheng, Juan ; Regmi, Anita ; Hu, Sheng Qing ; Gou, Luoning ; Chen, Lu Lu. / Low-glycemic index diets as an intervention for diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. In: The American journal of clinical nutrition. 2019 ; Vol. 110, No. 4. pp. 891-902.
@article{2c386b15ddc1495597720431f60d5c7b,
title = "Low-glycemic index diets as an intervention for diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis",
abstract = "Background: Low-glycemic index (GI) diets are thought to reduce postprandial glycemia, resulting in more stable blood glucose concentrations. Objecitve: We hypothesized that low-GI diets would be superior to other diet types in lowering measures of blood glucose control in people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes, or impaired glucose tolerance. Methods: We searched PubMed, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and clinical trials registries for published and unpublished studies up until 1 March, 2019. We included 54 randomized controlled trials in adults or children with impaired glucose tolerance, type 1 diabetes, or type 2 diabetes. Continuous data were synthesized using a random effects, inverse variance model, and presented as standardized mean differences with 95{\%} CIs. Results: Low-GI diets were effective at reducing glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting glucose, BMI, total cholesterol, and LDL, but had no effect on fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, HDL, triglycerides, or insulin requirements. The reduction in fasting glucose and HbA1c was inversely correlated with body weight. The greatest reduction in fasting blood glucose was seen in the studies of the longest duration. Conclusions: Low-GI diets may be useful for glycemic control and may reduce body weight in people with prediabetes or diabetes.",
keywords = "blood glucose, blood lipids, BMI, body fat, diabetes, glycemic index, HbA1c, low-GI diets",
author = "Zafar, {Mohammad Ishraq} and Mills, {Kerry E.} and Juan Zheng and Anita Regmi and Hu, {Sheng Qing} and Luoning Gou and Chen, {Lu Lu}",
year = "2019",
month = "10",
doi = "10.1093/ajcn/nqz149",
language = "English",
volume = "110",
pages = "891--902",
journal = "The Journal of clinical nutrition",
issn = "0002-9165",
publisher = "American Society for Nutrition",
number = "4",

}

Low-glycemic index diets as an intervention for diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. / Zafar, Mohammad Ishraq; Mills, Kerry E.; Zheng, Juan; Regmi, Anita; Hu, Sheng Qing; Gou, Luoning; Chen, Lu Lu.

In: The American journal of clinical nutrition, Vol. 110, No. 4, 10.2019, p. 891-902.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Low-glycemic index diets as an intervention for diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis

AU - Zafar, Mohammad Ishraq

AU - Mills, Kerry E.

AU - Zheng, Juan

AU - Regmi, Anita

AU - Hu, Sheng Qing

AU - Gou, Luoning

AU - Chen, Lu Lu

PY - 2019/10

Y1 - 2019/10

N2 - Background: Low-glycemic index (GI) diets are thought to reduce postprandial glycemia, resulting in more stable blood glucose concentrations. Objecitve: We hypothesized that low-GI diets would be superior to other diet types in lowering measures of blood glucose control in people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes, or impaired glucose tolerance. Methods: We searched PubMed, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and clinical trials registries for published and unpublished studies up until 1 March, 2019. We included 54 randomized controlled trials in adults or children with impaired glucose tolerance, type 1 diabetes, or type 2 diabetes. Continuous data were synthesized using a random effects, inverse variance model, and presented as standardized mean differences with 95% CIs. Results: Low-GI diets were effective at reducing glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting glucose, BMI, total cholesterol, and LDL, but had no effect on fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, HDL, triglycerides, or insulin requirements. The reduction in fasting glucose and HbA1c was inversely correlated with body weight. The greatest reduction in fasting blood glucose was seen in the studies of the longest duration. Conclusions: Low-GI diets may be useful for glycemic control and may reduce body weight in people with prediabetes or diabetes.

AB - Background: Low-glycemic index (GI) diets are thought to reduce postprandial glycemia, resulting in more stable blood glucose concentrations. Objecitve: We hypothesized that low-GI diets would be superior to other diet types in lowering measures of blood glucose control in people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes, or impaired glucose tolerance. Methods: We searched PubMed, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and clinical trials registries for published and unpublished studies up until 1 March, 2019. We included 54 randomized controlled trials in adults or children with impaired glucose tolerance, type 1 diabetes, or type 2 diabetes. Continuous data were synthesized using a random effects, inverse variance model, and presented as standardized mean differences with 95% CIs. Results: Low-GI diets were effective at reducing glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting glucose, BMI, total cholesterol, and LDL, but had no effect on fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, HDL, triglycerides, or insulin requirements. The reduction in fasting glucose and HbA1c was inversely correlated with body weight. The greatest reduction in fasting blood glucose was seen in the studies of the longest duration. Conclusions: Low-GI diets may be useful for glycemic control and may reduce body weight in people with prediabetes or diabetes.

KW - blood glucose

KW - blood lipids

KW - BMI

KW - body fat

KW - diabetes

KW - glycemic index

KW - HbA1c

KW - low-GI diets

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85072747404&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1093/ajcn/nqz149

DO - 10.1093/ajcn/nqz149

M3 - Article

VL - 110

SP - 891

EP - 902

JO - The Journal of clinical nutrition

JF - The Journal of clinical nutrition

SN - 0002-9165

IS - 4

ER -