Macroradiography using conventional radiographic X-ray equipment

R. A. Davidson, S. Bowman

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Macroradiography is a radiographic imaging technique used to increase the size of the image relative to that of the object. Macroradiographic images suffer degradation due mainly to geometric unsharpness (Ug). Ug results from the finite size of the focal spot of the X-ray tube. Specialized equipment with a small effective focal spot size (Eff FSS) is generally used to perform macroradiography. The specialized nature of the equipment means macroradiographic examinations are not commonly undertaken. Macroradiographic examinations can also be performed on conventional radiographic equipment because the Eff FSS varies in the X-ray beam along the cathode-anode axis. Calculations and measurements of FSSs at different positions along the cathode-anode direction of the X-ray beam have been made. A simple technique of angling the X-ray tube 10° towards the cathode reduces the Eff FSS in one dimension while still maintaining a vertical central ray. Reduced beam coverage results from this technique and an increase in radiographic exposure is required to compensate for the anode heel effect. Macroradiographic images of line pair phantoms and a hand-wrist phantom, at various tube angles, have been obtained to compare image detail.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)831-836
Number of pages6
JournalBritish Journal of Radiology
Issue number898
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2002


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