Market Reforms and the Integration of EU Natural Gas Markets

David Broadstock, Raymond LI, Linjin Wang

Research output: Contribution to conference (non-published works)Paperpeer-review


In the 1990s, the European Union and its member states decided to liberalize the energy markets and break down monopolies in the regional markets. In 1998, the first Gas Directive (98/30/EC) was adopted to gradually introduce competition to EU gas markets. The second Gas Directive (2003/55/EC) in 2003 accelerated the movement towards opening gas networks to third parties. According to the second directive, transport networks of gas must be independent from production and supply. It allowed the industrial clients and domestic customers to freely choose their gas suppliers in a competitive market. In July 2009, the EU adopted the third Gas Directive (2009/73/ EC) which aimed to tighten the requirements for separation of networks and to clarify the roles and responsibilities of national regulators to ensure greater transparency in market operations.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages2
Publication statusPublished - 2018
Externally publishedYes
Event6th IAEE Asian Conference: Energy Exploitation and Cooperation in Asia - China University of Geosciences, Wuhan, China
Duration: 2 Nov 20184 Nov 2018


Conference6th IAEE Asian Conference
Internet address


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