Marsupial Genetics Reveals Insights into Evolution of Mammalian X Chromosome Inactivation

Shafagh Nadaf, Paul Waters, Janine Deakin, Jennifer Marshall Graves

    Research output: A Conference proceeding or a Chapter in BookChapter

    Abstract

    X chromosome inactivation (X-inactivation; XCI) in mammals equalizes X gene dosage between XX females and XY males. It is the prime example of epigenetic repression on a grand scale. This regulatory process differentially treats homologous chromosomes within the same nucleus to ensure that only a single X chromosome remains active in a diploid female cell. The best-studied models of X-inactivation, humans and mice, represent only one of four clades of placental (eutherian) mammals. Comparisons of dosage compensation mechanisms in distantly related eutherian mammals, marsupial and monotreme mammals, and even birds, will offer entirely new insights to the mechanisms and evolution of dosage compensation. In order to reconstruct what dosage compensation mechanisms might have been functioning in the mammalian ancestor, we highlight the molecular similarities and differences between X-inactivation in marsupials and eutherians, and compare them with the partial dosage compensation system observed in monotreme mammals, which appears more similar to bird dosage compensation. We draw parallels between these mechanisms, which may well have evolved independently by drawing from a common epigenetic “toolbox”, and therefore utilize similar molecular mechanisms to down-regulate gene expression.
    Original languageEnglish
    Title of host publicationMarsupial Genetics and Genomics
    EditorsJ.E Deakin, P.D Waters, J.A.M Graves
    Place of PublicationNetherlands
    PublisherSpringer
    Pages259-280
    Number of pages22
    ISBN (Print)9789048190225
    Publication statusPublished - 2010

    Fingerprint

    Mammalian Chromosomes
    Marsupialia
    X Chromosome Inactivation
    Mammals
    Birds
    Epigenetic Repression
    Gene Dosage
    X Chromosome
    Diploidy
    Epigenomics
    Down-Regulation
    Chromosomes
    Gene Expression

    Cite this

    Nadaf, S., Waters, P., Deakin, J., & Marshall Graves, J. (2010). Marsupial Genetics Reveals Insights into Evolution of Mammalian X Chromosome Inactivation. In J. E. Deakin, P. D. Waters, & J. A. M. Graves (Eds.), Marsupial Genetics and Genomics (pp. 259-280). Netherlands: Springer.
    Nadaf, Shafagh ; Waters, Paul ; Deakin, Janine ; Marshall Graves, Jennifer. / Marsupial Genetics Reveals Insights into Evolution of Mammalian X Chromosome Inactivation. Marsupial Genetics and Genomics. editor / J.E Deakin ; P.D Waters ; J.A.M Graves. Netherlands : Springer, 2010. pp. 259-280
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    abstract = "X chromosome inactivation (X-inactivation; XCI) in mammals equalizes X gene dosage between XX females and XY males. It is the prime example of epigenetic repression on a grand scale. This regulatory process differentially treats homologous chromosomes within the same nucleus to ensure that only a single X chromosome remains active in a diploid female cell. The best-studied models of X-inactivation, humans and mice, represent only one of four clades of placental (eutherian) mammals. Comparisons of dosage compensation mechanisms in distantly related eutherian mammals, marsupial and monotreme mammals, and even birds, will offer entirely new insights to the mechanisms and evolution of dosage compensation. In order to reconstruct what dosage compensation mechanisms might have been functioning in the mammalian ancestor, we highlight the molecular similarities and differences between X-inactivation in marsupials and eutherians, and compare them with the partial dosage compensation system observed in monotreme mammals, which appears more similar to bird dosage compensation. We draw parallels between these mechanisms, which may well have evolved independently by drawing from a common epigenetic “toolbox”, and therefore utilize similar molecular mechanisms to down-regulate gene expression.",
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    Nadaf, S, Waters, P, Deakin, J & Marshall Graves, J 2010, Marsupial Genetics Reveals Insights into Evolution of Mammalian X Chromosome Inactivation. in JE Deakin, PD Waters & JAM Graves (eds), Marsupial Genetics and Genomics. Springer, Netherlands, pp. 259-280.

    Marsupial Genetics Reveals Insights into Evolution of Mammalian X Chromosome Inactivation. / Nadaf, Shafagh; Waters, Paul; Deakin, Janine; Marshall Graves, Jennifer.

    Marsupial Genetics and Genomics. ed. / J.E Deakin; P.D Waters; J.A.M Graves. Netherlands : Springer, 2010. p. 259-280.

    Research output: A Conference proceeding or a Chapter in BookChapter

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    N2 - X chromosome inactivation (X-inactivation; XCI) in mammals equalizes X gene dosage between XX females and XY males. It is the prime example of epigenetic repression on a grand scale. This regulatory process differentially treats homologous chromosomes within the same nucleus to ensure that only a single X chromosome remains active in a diploid female cell. The best-studied models of X-inactivation, humans and mice, represent only one of four clades of placental (eutherian) mammals. Comparisons of dosage compensation mechanisms in distantly related eutherian mammals, marsupial and monotreme mammals, and even birds, will offer entirely new insights to the mechanisms and evolution of dosage compensation. In order to reconstruct what dosage compensation mechanisms might have been functioning in the mammalian ancestor, we highlight the molecular similarities and differences between X-inactivation in marsupials and eutherians, and compare them with the partial dosage compensation system observed in monotreme mammals, which appears more similar to bird dosage compensation. We draw parallels between these mechanisms, which may well have evolved independently by drawing from a common epigenetic “toolbox”, and therefore utilize similar molecular mechanisms to down-regulate gene expression.

    AB - X chromosome inactivation (X-inactivation; XCI) in mammals equalizes X gene dosage between XX females and XY males. It is the prime example of epigenetic repression on a grand scale. This regulatory process differentially treats homologous chromosomes within the same nucleus to ensure that only a single X chromosome remains active in a diploid female cell. The best-studied models of X-inactivation, humans and mice, represent only one of four clades of placental (eutherian) mammals. Comparisons of dosage compensation mechanisms in distantly related eutherian mammals, marsupial and monotreme mammals, and even birds, will offer entirely new insights to the mechanisms and evolution of dosage compensation. In order to reconstruct what dosage compensation mechanisms might have been functioning in the mammalian ancestor, we highlight the molecular similarities and differences between X-inactivation in marsupials and eutherians, and compare them with the partial dosage compensation system observed in monotreme mammals, which appears more similar to bird dosage compensation. We draw parallels between these mechanisms, which may well have evolved independently by drawing from a common epigenetic “toolbox”, and therefore utilize similar molecular mechanisms to down-regulate gene expression.

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    Nadaf S, Waters P, Deakin J, Marshall Graves J. Marsupial Genetics Reveals Insights into Evolution of Mammalian X Chromosome Inactivation. In Deakin JE, Waters PD, Graves JAM, editors, Marsupial Genetics and Genomics. Netherlands: Springer. 2010. p. 259-280