Micronutrient dietary intakes and their food sources in adults: the Hellenic National Nutrition and Health Survey (HNNHS)

Anastasia Vasiliki Mitsopoulou, Emmanuela Magriplis, George Michas, Renata Micha, Michalis Chourdakis, George P. Chrousos, Eleftheria Roma, Demosthenes B. Panagiotakos, Antonis Zampelas, Dimitra Karageorgou, Ioanna Bakogianni, Ioannis Dimakopoulos, Triantafyllia Ntouroupi, Sophia Maria Tsaniklidou, Konstantina Argyri, Evangelia Fappa, Eleni Maria Theodoraki, Eirini Trichia, Theodora Eirini Sialvera, Aggeliki VarytimiadiEleni Spyreli, Antonis Koutelidakis, George Karlis, Stauroula Zacharia, Anna Papageorgiou, Georgios Dedoussis, George Dimitriadis, Ioannis Manios

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


Background: The present study aimed to assess micronutrient intake among Greek adults and to identify the main food sources that contribute to it. Methods: Food consumption data from 2389 participants in the Hellenic National Nutrition and Health Survey (HNNHS), collected with 24-h recalls, was used to calculate micronutrient intakes. Usual nutrient intake was estimated according to the National Cancer Institute method. Nutrient adequacy was estimated using the estimated average requirement (EAR) cut-point method, when available, or adequate intake otherwise. The probability approach was used to determine iron intake adequacy in females of reproductive age. Food group contribution for each nutrient assessed was derived to identify their main food sources. Results: Almost all individuals had vitamin D intake below EAR, whereas vitamins A, E, K and C, as well as potassium intake, were also insufficient in a considerable percentage of the population (>70% in most age groups). Calcium intake was substantially below the EAR for females aged >50 years and males >70 years; the same for magnesium in males >70 years. Furthermore, 50% of females, including those of reproductive age, had intake of folate below EAR. More than 50% of the population (to 79%) exceeded the upper tolerable limit for sodium (2300 mg day−1). Food contribution analysis revealed that most vitamins were derived from low-quality foods (i.e. fast-food). Conclusions: A significant proportion of adults residing in Greece have low nutrient intake and poor food selections. These results provide guidance to public health policy makers for developing strategies to improve the dietary quality in Greece.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)616-628
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2021
Externally publishedYes


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