Modulation of work and power by the human lower-limb joints with increasing steady-state locomotion speed

Anthony G. Schache, Nicholas A.T. Brown, Marcus G. Pandy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

30 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We investigated how the human lower-limb joints modulate work and power during walking and running on level ground. Experimental data were recorded from seven participants for a broad range of steadystate locomotion speeds (walking at 1.59±0.09 m s-1 to sprinting at 8.95±0.70 m s-1). We calculated hip, knee and ankle work and average power (i.e. over time), along with the relative contribution from each joint towards the total (sum of hip, knee and ankle) amount of work and average power produced by the lower limb. Irrespective of locomotion speed, ankle positive work was greatest during stance, whereas hip positive work was greatest during swing. Ankle positive work increased with faster locomotion until a running speed of 5.01±0.11 m s-1, where it plateaued at ∼1.3 J kg-1. In contrast, hip positive work during stance and swing, as well as knee negative work during swing, all increased when running speed progressed beyond 5.01±0.11 m s-1. When switching from walking to running at the same speed (∼2.0 m s-1), the ankle's contribution to the average power generated (and positive work done) by the lower limb during stance significantly increased from 52.7±10.4% to 65.3±7.5% (P=0.001), whereas the hip's contribution significantly decreased from 23.0±9.7% to 5.5±4.6% (P=0.004).With faster running, the hip's contribution to the average power generated (and positive work done) by the lower limb significantly increased during stance (P<0.001) and swing (P=0.003). Our results suggest that changing locomotion mode and faster steady-state running speeds are not simply achieved via proportional increases in work and average power at the lower-limb joints.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2472-2481
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Experimental Biology
Volume218
Issue number15
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2015
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

locomotion
Locomotion
hips
limbs (animal)
joints (animal)
limb
Lower Extremity
Joints
knees
Running
walking
Hip
Ankle
Knee
Walking
speed

Cite this

@article{4cd8c29de8074a258b06af654d52c45b,
title = "Modulation of work and power by the human lower-limb joints with increasing steady-state locomotion speed",
abstract = "We investigated how the human lower-limb joints modulate work and power during walking and running on level ground. Experimental data were recorded from seven participants for a broad range of steadystate locomotion speeds (walking at 1.59±0.09 m s-1 to sprinting at 8.95±0.70 m s-1). We calculated hip, knee and ankle work and average power (i.e. over time), along with the relative contribution from each joint towards the total (sum of hip, knee and ankle) amount of work and average power produced by the lower limb. Irrespective of locomotion speed, ankle positive work was greatest during stance, whereas hip positive work was greatest during swing. Ankle positive work increased with faster locomotion until a running speed of 5.01±0.11 m s-1, where it plateaued at ∼1.3 J kg-1. In contrast, hip positive work during stance and swing, as well as knee negative work during swing, all increased when running speed progressed beyond 5.01±0.11 m s-1. When switching from walking to running at the same speed (∼2.0 m s-1), the ankle's contribution to the average power generated (and positive work done) by the lower limb during stance significantly increased from 52.7±10.4{\%} to 65.3±7.5{\%} (P=0.001), whereas the hip's contribution significantly decreased from 23.0±9.7{\%} to 5.5±4.6{\%} (P=0.004).With faster running, the hip's contribution to the average power generated (and positive work done) by the lower limb significantly increased during stance (P<0.001) and swing (P=0.003). Our results suggest that changing locomotion mode and faster steady-state running speeds are not simply achieved via proportional increases in work and average power at the lower-limb joints.",
keywords = "Elastic strain energy, Running, Sprinting, Walk-to-run transition, Walking",
author = "Schache, {Anthony G.} and Brown, {Nicholas A.T.} and Pandy, {Marcus G.}",
year = "2015",
doi = "10.1242/jeb.119156",
language = "English",
volume = "218",
pages = "2472--2481",
journal = "Journal of Experimental Biology",
issn = "0022-0949",
publisher = "Company of Biologists Ltd",
number = "15",

}

Modulation of work and power by the human lower-limb joints with increasing steady-state locomotion speed. / Schache, Anthony G.; Brown, Nicholas A.T.; Pandy, Marcus G.

In: Journal of Experimental Biology, Vol. 218, No. 15, 2015, p. 2472-2481.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Modulation of work and power by the human lower-limb joints with increasing steady-state locomotion speed

AU - Schache, Anthony G.

AU - Brown, Nicholas A.T.

AU - Pandy, Marcus G.

PY - 2015

Y1 - 2015

N2 - We investigated how the human lower-limb joints modulate work and power during walking and running on level ground. Experimental data were recorded from seven participants for a broad range of steadystate locomotion speeds (walking at 1.59±0.09 m s-1 to sprinting at 8.95±0.70 m s-1). We calculated hip, knee and ankle work and average power (i.e. over time), along with the relative contribution from each joint towards the total (sum of hip, knee and ankle) amount of work and average power produced by the lower limb. Irrespective of locomotion speed, ankle positive work was greatest during stance, whereas hip positive work was greatest during swing. Ankle positive work increased with faster locomotion until a running speed of 5.01±0.11 m s-1, where it plateaued at ∼1.3 J kg-1. In contrast, hip positive work during stance and swing, as well as knee negative work during swing, all increased when running speed progressed beyond 5.01±0.11 m s-1. When switching from walking to running at the same speed (∼2.0 m s-1), the ankle's contribution to the average power generated (and positive work done) by the lower limb during stance significantly increased from 52.7±10.4% to 65.3±7.5% (P=0.001), whereas the hip's contribution significantly decreased from 23.0±9.7% to 5.5±4.6% (P=0.004).With faster running, the hip's contribution to the average power generated (and positive work done) by the lower limb significantly increased during stance (P<0.001) and swing (P=0.003). Our results suggest that changing locomotion mode and faster steady-state running speeds are not simply achieved via proportional increases in work and average power at the lower-limb joints.

AB - We investigated how the human lower-limb joints modulate work and power during walking and running on level ground. Experimental data were recorded from seven participants for a broad range of steadystate locomotion speeds (walking at 1.59±0.09 m s-1 to sprinting at 8.95±0.70 m s-1). We calculated hip, knee and ankle work and average power (i.e. over time), along with the relative contribution from each joint towards the total (sum of hip, knee and ankle) amount of work and average power produced by the lower limb. Irrespective of locomotion speed, ankle positive work was greatest during stance, whereas hip positive work was greatest during swing. Ankle positive work increased with faster locomotion until a running speed of 5.01±0.11 m s-1, where it plateaued at ∼1.3 J kg-1. In contrast, hip positive work during stance and swing, as well as knee negative work during swing, all increased when running speed progressed beyond 5.01±0.11 m s-1. When switching from walking to running at the same speed (∼2.0 m s-1), the ankle's contribution to the average power generated (and positive work done) by the lower limb during stance significantly increased from 52.7±10.4% to 65.3±7.5% (P=0.001), whereas the hip's contribution significantly decreased from 23.0±9.7% to 5.5±4.6% (P=0.004).With faster running, the hip's contribution to the average power generated (and positive work done) by the lower limb significantly increased during stance (P<0.001) and swing (P=0.003). Our results suggest that changing locomotion mode and faster steady-state running speeds are not simply achieved via proportional increases in work and average power at the lower-limb joints.

KW - Elastic strain energy

KW - Running

KW - Sprinting

KW - Walk-to-run transition

KW - Walking

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84953296765&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.mendeley.com/research/modulation-work-power-human-lowerlimb-joints-increasing-steadystate-locomotion-speed

U2 - 10.1242/jeb.119156

DO - 10.1242/jeb.119156

M3 - Article

VL - 218

SP - 2472

EP - 2481

JO - Journal of Experimental Biology

JF - Journal of Experimental Biology

SN - 0022-0949

IS - 15

ER -