Monitoring Age-Group Swimmers Over a Training Macrocycle: Energetics, Technique, and Anthropometrics

Rodrigo Zacca, Rui Azevedo, Phornpot Chainok, João Paulo Vilas-Boas, Flávio A de S Castro, David B Pyne, Ricardo J Fernandes

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

33 Citations (Scopus)


The aim of this study was to quantify changes and contributions of energetic, technique, and anthropometric profiles across the first training macrocycle (16-week) in a traditional 3-peak swimming season. Twenty-four age-group swimmers (10 boys and 14 girls age 14.4 ± 0.9 years) of equal maturational stage were monitored through a 400-m test in front crawl (T400). Energetic, technique, and anthropometric characteristics were compared before (experimental testing 1, E1) and after the preparatory (E2), specific (E3), and competitive (E4) training periods. Sex interaction was not significant for any variable. Multiple linear regressions and principal component analysis were used to identify the most influential variables and the relative contribution of each domain (energetics, technique, and anthropometrics) to changes in swimming performance of T400. The relative contributions for performance of T400 at E1, E2, E3, and E4 were 15, 12, 6, and 13% for energetics, 78, 85, 75, and 70% for technique, and 7, 3, 19 and 17% for anthropometrics, respectively. Technique played the main role during the first 16-week macrocycle in a competitive season, regardless of small fluctuations in the influence of energetics and anthropometrics. Changes and influence of energetics, technique, and anthropometric on age-group swimmers' performance could be described by the T400 swimming test, providing a comprehensive biophysical overview of the main contributors to swimming performance.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)818-827
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2020


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