Multifocal pupillographic objective perimetry for assessment of early diabetic retinopathy and generalised diabetes-related tissue injury in persons with type 1 diabetes

Faran Sabeti, Corinne F. Carle, Christopher J. Nolan, Alicia J. Jenkins, Andrew C. James, Lauren Baker, Caitlin E. Coombes, Veronica Cheung, Melody Chiou, Ted Maddess

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Abstract

Background: To examine the potential utility of five multifocal pupillographic objective perimetry (mfPOP) protocols, in the assessment of early diabetic retinopathy (DR) and generalised diabetes-related tissue injury in subjects with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Methods: Twenty-five T1D subjects (age 41.8 ± 12.1 (SD) years, 13 male) with either no DR (n = 13) or non-proliferative DR (n = 12), and 23 age and gender-matched control subjects (age 39.7 ± 12.9 years, 9 male) were examined by mfPOP using five different stimulus methods differing in visual field eccentricity (central 30° and 60°), and colour (blue, yellow or green test-stimuli presented on, respectively, a blue, yellow or red background), each assessing 44 test-locations per eye. In the T1D subjects, we assessed 16 metabolic status and diabetes complications variables. These were summarised as three principal component analysis (PCA) factors. DR severity was assessed using Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) scores. Area under the curve (AUC) from receiver operator characteristic analyses quantified the diagnostic power of mfPOP response sensitivity and delay deviations for differentiating: (i) T1D subjects from control subjects, (ii) T1D subjects according to three levels of the identified PCA-factors from control subjects, and (iii) TID subjects with from those without non-proliferative DR. Results: The two largest PCA-factors describing the T1D subjects were associated with metabolic variables (e.g. body mass index, HbA1c), and tissue-injury variables (e.g. serum creatinine, vibration perception). Linear models showed that mfPOP per-region response delays were more strongly associated than sensitivities with the metabolic PCA-factor and ETDRS scores. Combined mfPOP amplitude and delay measures produced AUCs of 90.4 ± 8.9% (mean ± SE) for discriminating T1D subjects with DR from control subjects, and T1D subjects with DR from those without of 85.9 ± 8.8%. The yellow and green stimuli performed better than blue on most measures. Conclusions/interpretation: In T1D subjects, mfPOP testing was able to identify localised visual field functional abnormalities (retinal/neural reflex) in the absence or presence of mild DR. mfPOP responses were also associated with T1D metabolic status, but less so with early stages of non-ophthalmic diabetes complications.

Original languageEnglish
Article number166
Pages (from-to)1-13
Number of pages13
JournalBMC Ophthalmology
Volume22
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2022
Externally publishedYes

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