Municipal solid waste-to-energy processing for a circular economy in New Zealand

M. T. Munir, Ahmad Mohaddespour, A. T. Nasr, Susan Carter

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

33 Citations (Scopus)


For the success of waste-to-energy in New Zealand, waste-to-energy processing technologies need to reduce their costs (e.g. capital and operational) by generating additional revenue in the form of fuels and other by-products. We focus on municipal solid waste (MSW), the garbage that New Zealand generates in a problematically large amount per capita, proposing that a circular economy approach can safely manage MSW while mitigating increasing energy demands when waste is converted to energy by various MSW-to-energy technologies. The present study reviews the current status of comparative MSW generation, energy deficit, and waste-to-energy processing. Various waste-to-energy technologies are reviewed, their potential and current status in New Zealand are described, and their associated challenges identified to develop a potentially promising waste-to-energy process for a circular economy in New Zealand. Waste-to-energy technologies in New Zealand can achieve commercial success and community readiness levels by using better communication strategies to inform end-users and relevant stakeholders, and adding extra safety layers around their processes. Various combinations of waste-to-energy technologies are recommended for successful waste-to-energy processing in New Zealand, as no technology can effectively serve the purpose of waste-to-energy processing alone.

Original languageEnglish
Article number111080
Pages (from-to)1-14
Number of pages14
JournalRenewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2021
Externally publishedYes


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