The aim of this study is to investigate if baseline relative peripheral refraction (RPR) influences the myopia control effects in Chinese myopic children wearing Defocus Incorporated Multiple Segments (DIMS) lenses. Peripheral refraction at 10◦, 20◦, and 30◦ nasal (10 N, 20 N, 30 N) and temporal (10 T, 20 T, 30 T) retina were measured at six-month intervals for children who participated in a 2-year randomized controlled trial. The relationship between the baseline peripheral refractions and myopia progression and axial length changes were analysed. A total of 79 children and 81 children in the DIMS and single vision (SV) group were investigated, respectively. In the DIMS group, more baseline myopic RPR spherical equivalent (SE) was associated with more myopic progression (10 N: r = 0.36, p = 0.001; 20 N: r = 0.35, p = 0.001) and greater axial elongation (10 N: r = −0.34, p = 0.001; 20 N: r = −0.29, p = 0.006) after adjusting for co-factors. In the SV group, baseline RPR had association with only myopia progression (10 N: r = 0.37, p = 0.001; 20 N: r = 0.36, p = 0.001; 30 N: r = 0.35, p = 0.002) but not with axial elongation after Bonferroni correction (p > 0.008). No statistically significant relationship was found between temporal retina and myopia progression or axial elongation in both groups. Children with baseline myopic RPR had statistically significant more myopia progression (mean difference around −0.40 D) and more axial elongation (mean difference 0.15 mm) when compared with the children having baseline hyperopic RPR in the DIMS group but not in the SV group. In conclusion, the baseline RPR profile may not influence future myopia progression or axial elongation for the SV lens wearers. However, DIMS lenses slowed down myopia progression and was better in myopia control for the children with baseline hyperopic RPR than the children with myopic RPR. This may partially explain why myopia control effects vary among myopic children. Customised myopic defocus for individuals may optimise myopia control effects, and further research to determine the optimal dosage, with consideration of peripheral retinal profile, is warranted.